Digital Parenting: The Dilemma in Raising Millennials

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Written by: Saraa Abas

The development of media technology has requires human to infuse the usage of media as a form of communication tools and to gain information in which will help them to improve their knowledge and skills. Moving towards modernization, many parents began introducing the use of media in their children’s lives in early age, not only to communicate, but also as learning tools that will influence, persuade and embedded various information for future use.

Children nowadays have the access of using the internet, in addition, they now have collections of smart phones, computers, game console, tablet PC and many computer-mediated communication tools. The advancement of media technologies facilitate the need of human interface in communication. The richer the media, the more effects it has on it consumer. Not only that, the hours of consumer dependency on media also contributes to the effects of media to children. With the richer media, it provides visual aids, interactive communication, and conveys information that captures the attention of children in using media.

Media as companionship

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Modern parents encounter many challenges in balancing their work and having to spend time with their kids. Therefore, turning to ‘gadget’ are the easiest way to keep their children entertain while they are away. To compensate the reduced in human face-to-face interaction between parents and their children, the media becomes their children’s
medium of companionship to satisfy their needs. These children uses the media to entertain themselves, acquiring information, building and maintaining social relationship with their family members, peer from school and form new connections from social networking sites. Children often engage with their smart phones, excessive time consumption on television and their social networking sites. Without having control, cases of obsessed with electronics are on the rise involving children are very concerning (Brown, Scharf, Bustos, Chavira & Stein, 2013).

Our children are depending on media for their development instead of human interface. The theory of Uses and Gratification Theory illustrates on how media usage comply with the need of human in acquiring information, personal and social integration and seeking the need of affection and tension release. This theory explains that the people are active in using a particular media and its users are self-aware and articulate the reasons why they use the media (West & Turner, 2014). However, in fulfilling these needs, the parent should have the responsibility to limit on what their children are consuming as it may affect their skills of human interaction in reality social situation. Face-to-face interaction should be encouraged.

The risk of disclosing private information

With easy access to the internet, at young age, we can see many children began to engage and use the social networking sites to form or maintain relationship in the virtual world. Now, a typical 7 year old have Facebook profiles, Twitter account and shares many photograph on Instagram on daily basis. Unconsciously, these children are sharing their location and vital information about their personal lives. Without guidance, this increase the risk of exposing private information to the public, jeopardising their information security and safety. Children may be not aware of their right of information and which appropriate information that are suitable to be shared to the public.

In the process of growing up, children are bound to make mistakes. Without having to know the consequences, they may disclose inappropriate information or photograph to the public, this makes them vulnerable to be discussed on public platform. Without having control of how the information are shared, cyber bullying are one of disturbing phenomenon that manipulate the information available on the internet and irresponsibly use it to bring damage to the children’s emotions and mentally. Suicidal cases among children and teen are highly record due to this sick behaviour. The Communication Privacy Management Theory explain how information can be shared and the ownership of information to determine the boundaries of private information that they are willing to share. When the children lost their ownership and control of their own information, one mistakes could lead to the turbulence of boundaries because the rules of privacy has been violated. We need to educate the children on the boundaries permeability in protecting our children safety in avoiding the public abuse.

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Shapes the children’s perception and belief about the world

According to Christakis (2008), 90% of children spend large amount of time on television regularly before the age of 2 in spite of recommendation to contrary. Over time, with constant consumption of media, it effects on the children’s perception and belief about the world based on what they have been nurtured of. It can be positive or negative. Currently in Malaysia, the repetition of news reports on crime involving children are becoming regular. The on-going commentary about the situation and public campaign about children’s safety contributes to the perception of children about their surrounding environments are not safe anymore. Even though it is a good campaign to stay alert, however the negative feeling they feel in becoming the victim has shape negative perception about the world. Hence, limiting them to be optimistic and do social activities without having the risk of crime occurring.

Cultivation theory explains that the constant messages convey to the children shapes the perception about the world and society surrounds them. Through media, they will learn numerous facts on what are happening in the society (first order effect) and with these information, they will make general assumption about the condition of the world (second order effect). With heavy TV consumption, they will believe that the world is a violence place and crime will likely happen to them compared to children with light consumption (Gerbner, 1999).

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Learns and imitates the behaviour seen on media

Children are still in the phase of learning and developing. They can be easily influenced by what they see on the media. The media content that they consume will have a significant effect in their behaviour. While watching television, children observed the behaviour of the subject and learn to imitate the action and behaviour pattern of the person doing. The phenomena of Malaysian children imitating the behaviour of scene and dialogues from the movie ‘KL Gangster’ is one of an example of the effect of media on children. With the exposure of violence towards children, this motivates aggression and develops disturbing behaviour to society as they learn and applied it in surrounding environments. If the response from the society are encouraging and positive, they will continued with the behaviour. If the response are negative, they will learned that aggressive behaviour are not acceptable in a society.

Most minors get into crime because of negative peer influence and elements of gangsterism which are penetrating the schools. The young society perceived gangsterism as a cool and trendy behaviour, hence, increasing youth participation in gangsterism and juvenile crime totalled 7,816 cases in 2013 as compared to 3,700 cases in 2012 (Lee, 2014). In Social Cognitive Theory, it believe that people are self-organising, proactive, self-reflecting and self-regulating. Human self-development, adaptation, and changed are embedded in social systems (Bryant & Zillman, 2002). Children learned the behavioural capability through observational learning in order to perform a behaviour. They will learn on what to do and how to do it. The responses of the behaviour will determine the likelihood of continuing or discontinuing the behaviour. Resulting from positive of negative response, it will associate with the expectation of each action done.

The usage of media can be beneficial and have negative consequences at times. Parent must be responsible for their children’s welfare and development if they want to raise their child that shares the same values that the parent wanting them to. Even though parent encounter many challenging phenomenon in raising their children, the usage of media must be proportionate and adequately used parallel with the need of their children. Human need to educate themselves on the purpose of using the media and balance their technology literacy with human actual interaction. Human physical interaction contains valuable moments that build the values and belief of a child. It gives quality time and organic ways of communication. The face-to-face interaction and attention given will develop the attention of need and nurture sense of love in a family.

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Bandura, A. (1994). Media effects: Advences in theory and research. Hillsdale: NJ: Erlbaum.

Christakis, D. A. (2008). The Effects of Infant Media Usage. The Author/Journal Compilation 2008 Foundation Acta Paediatrica, 8-16.

Gerbner, G. (1969). Towards ‘cultural indicators’: The analysis of mass mediated message system. Communcation Review, 137-148.

Gerbner, G. (1999). Television and its viewers: Cultivation theory and research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jennings Bryant, Dolf Zillmann. (2002). Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research. Taylor & Francis.

Fishbein, I. Ajzen. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour: An introduction to theory and research. MA: Addison-Wesley.

Richard West, Lynn H. Turner. (2014). Introducing Communication Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Robin L. Nabi, John L. Sullivan. (2001). Does Television Viewing Relate to Engagement in Protective Action Agaisnt Crime? Communication Research, 802-825.

Scott Brown, Michael A. Scharf, Cristina Bustos, Denise Chavira, Martin T. Stein. (2013). Media Addiction in a 10 Year Old Boy. Journal of Developmental and Behavioural Pediatrics, 34:375-378.

Thye, L. L. (2014, April 14). Juvenile crime on the rise. Retrieved from The Star Online:


Singer: Born or Made?

Written By: Sufian

Talking about singing, Some people are able to sing well, and some people make it awesome by hitting the perfect notes with a beautiful body language. In other word, some people are just a better singer than the others. But it’s no difference than some people being better runners, football players, swimmer, guitarist, or even a good writer.  According to (Vennard, 1967), singing is not a natural skill, but an art. Singing is very mechanical. There is much to be said about the shape of the skull, resonance of the space in the nasal cavity, and how much air can be pushed out of the chest.

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But let’s come back, since we are not talking just about singing, but about singing well. Mechanics are just going to get you so far. You also need to hear the music, and then understand it. What musicians calls “pitch”, scientist call it “frequency” And sound frequency is the measure of the wave isolation of that sound per second, measured in Hertz. Having good pitch requires the ears to pick up the precise frequency, the brain to recognize a certain frequency in Hertz, and then direct the vocal cord to reproduce that sound. There, the brain has to hear what is coming out tweak it ever so slightly and constantly. It is difficult, but to be honest, it takes practice to match pitch.

Musicians nailed that down through practice. But there is a study conducted, and they found that one out of five musicians that they tested could not control their vocal muscles very well, and 35% of them could not match their voice with a correct note. But both musicians and non-musicians were able to listen to and match a pitch using a slight

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instrument. Only 5% could hear the difference in pitch. But again, it is possible to develop this with practice. Training our voice is similar to going to the gym, and training any other muscle.

So, to get back to mechanical things and break some little hearts, yes, some musicality is in born. Human sound and vocalization is a big part of our cultural social development. Group of humans sing together to bond, we’re celebrating just for fun. This means, social groups that value singing may have looked from musical characteristics in their mates throughout history.

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A study was conducted and the researcher found that there are “musical genes” in human that influence perception, memory, even participation in music. Mechanically speaking, a singer is a piano, or a guitar. Different instruments will produce different sound or tone even with a same pitch. And same goes to human. Every person have a different tone and sound. People from different genetic background tend to have different size of nasal cavity which will influence the sound of their vocal. This will lead to a certain beneficial singing ability.

But what do you think? Why some people are just better singer? Practice or providence? Are singers born or made? You decide! 🙂


Vennard, W. (1967). Singing: The Mechanism and the Technic. Oxford: Carl Fischer .


Written By: AppleFadila

We have all had
Not ignited
Not initiated

We look for ways
To put off the fire
But the sparks
Keep burning
Crashing down the walls
We built as comfort

Where can we seek calmness?
Anger left us flaming
Burnt selves need soothing

Can we attain full harmony
Behaving favorably
Decency of a kind
Portraying we are fine
Acceptance to a whole
Change from hot to cold?

Can be a meter of conscience
A monitor of self
An own scale
Of extent?

Could we control
The desire
The flame
The stress?

Can we go against
The pull
The force
The devils?


We are left
With no other than
To suppress
Not channeling
But fusing
The feels within

Are we fully cured?
Can we be free like birds?
Or are we our own demons?
A battle with no end
Agony is a friend

It is all a test
We could escape this mess

Hold our hearts
And feel
Touch our heads
And think

A put to put in first
Do we believe in forgiveness?

Copyright of AppleFadila
December 2015

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Anger and Forgiveness

Written By: AppleFadila

Anger; One word that has constituted battles of emotions on some or even many mankind. A fight against anger is a sense of prevention from doing something that might initiate regrets later. Uncontrolled anger may cause violence, or even crimes, if it somehow takes over your self-consciousness or relevant thinking such of a rightful man’s.

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According to Mental Health Foundation, anger is defined as a physical and mental response to a threat or to harm done in the past. Anger takes many different forms from irritation to blinding rage or resentment that festers over many years. There are three components to anger which are physical component, cognitive component and behavioral component.

This article does not focus on anger management by scientific means, but rather focuses on the spiritual side; which is curing anger with forgiveness. And yet, some people might say, it is something that it is easier said than done. Some people might experience anger arising from causes that they once took close to their hearts. Sometimes, anger is closely associated to how emotions lurk among and between people.

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When a subject of anger is taken dearly to the heart, this might prevent them from even considering forgiveness as a calming solution. Some might even choose to live with the existing anger and prolongs it until it initiates vengeance. I view this as a threat to humanity and also a harm to human’s prosperous and stabilized state of emotions.

Giving forgiveness is the way a person can opt for a better continuance of life. This will also prevent any crimes and violence to occur in the community. A psychology website cites giving forgiveness can be done in multiple ways such as accepting the incident in which anger triggered you, acknowledge the growth you experienced as a result of what happened, put a thought that everyone makes mistakes and flaws and decide on whether or not you will tell the person that you have forgiven him or her.

In a nutshell, anger asserts a sort of threat to both the community and your own self calmness. Anger should be taken care of delicately so as not to affect anyone around you nor will lure you into violence or crimes. It is in the best favor if we could opt for forgiveness upon those who had hurt us or made us go furious. For all we know, by forgiving, we will find ourselves living with a more calm heart and changes the way of how we see life with a now-different perspective.

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Anger and forgiveness is a term whereby the former can be cooled down by the latter. We often ignite anger and forgiveness can be one of the ways to smash down the walls of furiousness and dissatisfaction, and leaves us with a more spacious room for the heart to fill in with new and memorable things. I end this article by a poem on Anger & Forgiveness for us to indulge our thoughts in. Thank you.


Euthanasia, Should Be Legalized Or Not?

Written By: Murni

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What is euthanasia? Euthanasia is known as assisted suicide or physician-assisted suicide (dying), doctor-assisted dying (suicide), and more loosely termed mercy killing, means to take a deliberate action with the express intention of ending a life to relieve intractable (persistent, unstoppable) suffering.

“Euthanasia” is frequently mistakenly portrayed as speaking to one specific sort of hone. Be that as it may, it is all the more precisely comprehended as an umbrella term which covers a boundless exhibit of practices that can be portrayed as various types of Euthanasia.

These incorporate;

  1. Passive voluntary euthanasia – when medical treatment is withdrawn or withheld from a patient, at the patient’s request, in order to end the patient’s life;
  2. Active voluntary euthanasia – when medical intervention takes place, at the patient’s request, in order to end the patient’s life;
  3. Passive involuntary euthanasia – when medical treatment is withdrawn or withheld from a patient, not at the request of the patient, in order to end the patient’s life;  Active involuntary euthanasia – when medical intervention takes place, not at the patient’s request, in order to end the patient’s life.

Voluntary euthanasia is when a clearly competent person makes a voluntary and enduring request to be helped to die. Non-voluntary euthanasia is when the patient cannot make the decision for himself/herself since he/she is in a comma or other similar state. Whether countries should legalize or use this method to end human’s lives is one of the most controversial issues nowadays.

In my point of view, passive, active, voluntary and non-voluntary euthanasia should not be legalized since the action is similar to killing and which is also a rejection of the significance and value of human life. According to Smith’s (2004), euthanasia “is about using someone’s suffering — and the pity it evokes — as a justification to kill.” Even in old times, the philosophers such as Pythagorean’s, Aristotelian’s, and Epicureans were not in the same line with the physician-assisted suicide (Westerndorf P.J, Seminary,W.L., Mequon & WI., 2005 )

Dynamic killing is a great deal more and a more dubious subject than a lot of willful extermination. People are torn by religious, moral values and empathetic contentions encompassing the issue. Willful extermination has been an extremely dubious and emotive theme for quite a while.

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According to NY Times , suffering is not a major reason the choice is made . There is no evidence that the choice is made because pain relief is unaffordable. There is a great need for more palliative and hospice care, but that issue is not connected to aid in dying.

Individuals ought not to utilize killing since it is a dismissal of the significance and esteem of human life and can be viewed as a type of executing and suicide. A few logicians who rejected the possibility of people taking their own particular lives were Hobbes and Locke. Hobbes claims, in Leviathan, that regular law disallows each man “to do, what is ruinous of his life, or take away the method for protecting the same” (as referred to in Philosophy of suicide – Wikipedia, 2010).

As stated in Times Video, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau of Canada unveiled a new bill that would legalize doctor-assisted suicides for people suffering from serious medical ailments on 14 April 2016. Prime Minister of Canada has confirmed that suicide is justified with the help of the doctor if the patient is found to suffer from a serious medical illness. When suicide has been allowed because of the suffering experienced by patients, it also proves that the act is increasingly accepted with the intention to reduce their suffering. Click link for video description:


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According to Euthanasia n.d, legalizing euthanasia might also lead to the beginning of the slippery slope arguments. They also stated that allowing euthanasia will cause the practice to become a norm which will bring disaster if it happens since it is easier to administer euthanasia than to provide healthcare. There are some countries that practice euthanasia which are Netherlands and Holland. The Netherlands has allowed euthanasia for years, and under strict guidelines to protect the vulnerable from abuse, meanwhile Holland allows it on Alzheimer’s patients.

Another complaint to willful extermination originates from the likelihood of misrepresentation and manhandle. In any case, if the choice on the “kind discharge” is left to an administration delegated leading group of no less than three people—for example, two medicinal men and one legal counselor, who must be consistent to support it—this appears to be a frail contention. Unquestionably lawful specialists can devise sufficient shields.

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There are people who consider euthanasia should be legalized because human beings have the rights to choose what the best for them . Euthanasia is an option for the ones who are suffering. In some cases where the patient had Lou Gehrig’s disease, she knew the consequence of the disease, she will undergo a slow and painful death . She asked the court to grant her wish to die and the court did not approve it but she achieved it anyways with doctor’s help. According to Paquette P.  ( 2003 ) , the one’s life is their own rights , hence they have their own rights to create . Also, using euthanasia can be considered another way of killing and a rejection of the significance and value of human life. Humans should value and be grateful for the life they have, instead of thinking of ways to end it.

At death’s door patients now and again endure torment so ghastly that it can barely be fathomed by the individuals who have not really experienced it. Their anguish can be terrible to the point that we do dislike even to peruse about it or consider it; we pull back even from its portrayal. The contention from benevolence says: killing is defended in light of the fact that it puts a conclusion to that (Rachels, p. 457)

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The conclusion is even though euthanasia can be a way of out from the pain, but truthfully it is not the only way. The consequence of euthanasia to our society is more weakening than to strengthen it. If it somehow managed to be legitimized, the outcomes may be genocide as it happened when it was sanctioned under the Nazi administration in Germany. The Nazis began utilizing it on critical-conditioned individuals, then they utilized it with the injured, then the impeded, then the elderly, lastly every one of these passing brought about the holocaust of 6 million Jews. Regardless of what one’s perspective of killing, it would be ethically wrong to overlook the torment of the patient. In any case, facilitating that torment ought not be the beginning of another arrangement of issues, similar to manhandle of force or tricky slant. Therefore, we can conclude that there is no way of properly legalizing euthanasia, since there will always be drawbacks.

Let’s Renew Your Skin’s Appearance

Written By: Siti Hajar

No matter what skin products you use

Cleaning your skin is an important part of a daily routine

How important is Hygiene to our skin?  As we know, Hygiene is more than just “being clean”.

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It is defined as the many practices that help people stay healthy .Especially, when it comes to our face! Yes, that’s right! Your skin is a vital barrier against abrasion, chemicals, and pathogens.

According to dermatology skin experts, there are some simple, breezy and easy ways for you to follow !

  • First thing first, never ever try to touch your face unless your hands are clean. It is because, bacteria on your hands “feeds” pimples.
  • No no ! Don’t pick pimples! …
  • Always wash your face before bedtime no matter how sleepy you are. …
  • Change your pillowcase often. Yes, this is a really helpful tips; ladies and gentlemen!
  • Be consistent with your facial regime.
  • Avoid strong alcohol-based toners.

No matter how many products you use even though they are manufactured locally or internationally, nor expensive or not; proper skin hygiene is the best way to keep your skin healthy. So, cleaning your skin is an important part of a daily routine. We have to find the skin product that can suits us. However, everyone has his or her own cleaning routine. So, if you are suffering from acne and you’ve started to treat it, then better do it with proper care and attention so as to get the best results!

So ladies and gentlemen! Let’s Renew Your Skin’s Appearance!

And here I share to you guys a video of a famous beautician that hits more than 4 million viewers.  Check out her channel and please show her some love!

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References , Retrieved on 11 June 2016,                

Michelle phan on how Beauty basic skin care, Retrieved on 11 June 2016

The Benefits Of The Alternative Transportation Energy: Hybrid Cars

Written By: Raja Aqiff

Hybrid is defined as the combination of two different elements or mixtures as one and that has been produced to become as a new creation. While hybrid cars also refer to the combination of two engines that move the car with conventional engines and electric motors. However, the adaptation of the hybrid energy into the automotive industry has been mass-produced since 1997 by Toyota and followed by Honda in 1999.

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The productions of hybrid cars are mostly well-accepted by consumers as the hybrid cars support “green technology” because they do not release carbon dioxide in a high quantity compared to conventional cars that use petrol gas to power up the car engines.

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Hybrid cars have been widely being used these days through various car brands which are Audi, Honda, Toyota, Tesla, Ford, as well as other car manufacturers. The price range is almost near to other variants, while being more cost-effective towards the users. This is because a hybrid car reduces the usage of the petrol gas and changes it to the Eco-drive mode which is by using the electric motor while the driver drives at a slower speed.

According to Rinkesh (2009) from the Conserve Energy Future website, there are several advantages in using hybrid cars which would be able to benefit users and also towards the earth’s ecosystems as they would also reduce pollution.

Firstly, the issue of environment has been the main cause on the creation of hybrid energy cars so as to preserve the earth from being polluted with excessive carbon dioxide that causes the ozone layer to become thin in the future. Hybrid cars can also prevent or reduce global warming and other worrisome natural phenomenon.

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Secondly, financial cost is able to be reduced as the car will save gas usage when the electric mode replaces the petrol engine at times the driver drives at a slower speed. Thus, fuel consumption is reduced and the saving also includes a longer life-span on the battery that doesn’t need to be replaced annually as opposed to conventional cars.

Lastly, the cars would have high market values when the owners of the cars decide to sell them as the technology used by hybrid cars make them high in-demand from time to time as the gradual increase of the petrol gas prices would make the hybrid cars as one of the best options for those who plan to purchase vehicles in the future.

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In conclusion, hybrid cars offer a lot of benefits to the owners and also towards the surrounding as they would reduce pollution. They also act as the alternatives apart from conventional engines that contribute to pollution and they can also be maintained for a longer period of time. Furthermore, the hybrid technology is being supported internationally as it would ensure a greener earth in the future.


Rinkesh. (2009). Conserve Energy Future. Retrieved November 13, 2016, from Conserve Energy Future. Be Green. Stay Green.:


Drones: The Future Of Technology

Written By: Natasha Sidek

The advancement of technology in the world does not surprise us anymore.  Drones have become common.  A drone is called as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV).  It is a remote-controlled vehicle that has capability to fly.  It comes in many shapes and sizes with prices ranging from USD45 (RM200) all the way up to hundreds of dollars.

This unmanned aircraft has been widely used in other countries including America, Australia, Canada, China, France, United Kingdom, Malaysia and many more.  When it first came out in the market, people had questions on the purpose of using drones and the issue of privacy upon its usage.  Groups or individuals basically use drones to transport goods, save lives and to take aerial photography or for videography purposes.

Drones are legal in many countries including Malaysia.  There is no permit to own and use one unless it is a drone above 20kg then the owner has to apply for a permit/document on

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it.  There are certain areas that are non-fly areas for drones such as the airspace of airports, high-rise buildings, and across the palace and army bases.  Drones are strictly prohibited to fly across these airspace.

Across the globe, there are various countries like France, the U.S., Japan and Thailand that enacted laws pertaining to the use of drones.  In France, Paris has been declared a no-fly zone for drones and if you are caught flying a drone there, you could be fined with a 75000 Euro and a maximum of five years in jail.  While in the U.S., drones are only allowed for recreational purposes and drones cannot be flown higher than 122m and the use of drones for commercial purposes is largely disallowed without the approval from the FAA.

Nowadays we can see many individuals or groups using drones in their activities.  But the questions of air safety have risen among the public.  How do they impact privacy?  The

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drones might fly across prohibited areas or private lands of people including our homes. The videos made from the drones might be incursions on privacy of other people.

Fortunately, NASA claimed that not all persistent drones impose threats to privacy.  Drones are seen as new tools for studying hurricanes and other natural phenomenon.  It is also well-known that there must be some pros and cons of any new technologies invented and introduced to us.  The privacy issue can be solved when the legal system on it is implemented for the safety of the public as well.

Typical surveying of natural disasters like floods, earthquakes and landslides involves many tools to measure affected areas and it takes a significant amount of time and is also dangerous to mankind.  The use of drones in situations like these is believed to be a new method to measure disasters by utilizing the high resolution images that can be captured by drone technology.  As in Malaysia, a drone had also been used to help flood victims by sending them goods and monitoring the surrounding situation.  To view and point out the positive side of drones; it can be seen that the future of drones as humanitarian tools is getting brighter and more promising day by day.

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Why Kids Should Not Watch TV?

Written By: Farahin Mustafa

People are so worried about the effect of media towards children. Media were known as the powerful tools in shaping and influencing the public perception. The society lives with the media as a medium to gain knowledge, information on what happening surround us, communication tools and to learn on how to live our life. Media has become part and parcel in our life and we cannot run from it. Media do give us the benefit since it helps us to complete our routine life just like YouTube that broadcast million of tutorial to teach us how to cook, how to make money and many more. However, media have the negative side when the existence of media somehow affects the kids when no parental guidance to observe the kids media consumption.

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According to Alexis S. Tan, when the results of the experiment were shown to the real world most social and behavioral scientist accept the facts and come out with a general consensus where exposure to television violence can cause short-term arousal and modeling effects (Bryant, 1986). There are many other theories that can explain this phenomenon for example, the social learning theory by Albert Bandura. Alexis asserted, “Social learning theory explains how matching performances can result from modeling observed behavior” (Bryant, 1986). Albert Bandura through his research on the kids who was separated in different room and one group was exposed towards violence and then it was agreed then the kids do exactly the same violence and aggression towards Bobo doll while another group vice versa.

Kids today have a greater access to the media including social media like Facebook and YouTube. Lack of parental guidance may lead to over-consuming of media and the kids might imitate non-proper content. In social learning behavior or also known as social cognitive theory, kids or people learn behavior through several stage; observational learning, reinforced performance and biological determinants. In general, this theory explained that children who were exposed to television (observational learning) are motivated to imitate the act (reinforced performance) and then when it becomes to a certain situation where they feel a pressure or feeling of aggression, they have the tendency to imitate the violence act they have seen once.

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Other than that, media also affects the children by cultivating the negative view of the real world toward children. According to George Gerbner (1985), “television is the most common purveyor of images to mass audience, cultivation theory hypothesizes that heavy viewers of television will be more likely to hold the conceptions of the world consistent with what is seen on television” (Dudo et al, 2011). In general, the theory explained that children who were exposed to television more than four hours can be labeled as heavy viewers and they most likely will view the world as what they see in the television. The effects as we can see, society portray beautiful as having skinny figures and fair skin color, thus, the children was exposed to such thoughts and no wonder kids nowadays are depressed when they being ridicules in schools for being fat and have a dark skin. No

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wonder, there are many bullied cases on fat kids and others with disabilities as television keep portraying the image of bully victims is always the kids with fat figures. Therefore, cultivation theory explained how media could cultivate a negative perception on children towards real world. Youth are the obvious group of our children who fear towards the real world. They are afraid of being ugly and not accepted by the society. This is where cultivation theory applied.

Besides cultivation theory, users and gratifications theory also explained the phenomenon of media effects towards children. According to Alan M. Rubin, users and gratifications research generally focuses on the consuming behaviors of media audience members, basically, different media consumption cause different effects (Bryant, 1986). For example, people who use media for entertainment, it may not influence their behavior while people who use media as an escapism may have the potential to be addicted as what Robin Smith asserted in his article entitled Television Addicted and one of his literature on television addicted among children are:

“According to Schramm et al (1961), It is undoubtedly true that television addicts exist and among children who are psychologically disturbed in a serious way… The child who becomes addicted to the dream world of television is usually schizoid or suffering from very unsatisfactory personal relations, at home or with the peer group or both. (Bryant, 1986)”

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Users and gratifications theory explained that people consume media to satisfy their needs. There are five types of needs in this theory; the needs for entertainment, escapism, self-enhancing, educational and social integration. Mostly children will use these three types of media – television, video games and social media and they might use these media to satisfy the needs of self-enhancing, entertainment and escapism. Kids nowadays use media to escape from their duty to complete their homework, to run away from doing house chore and also to seek for a dream world, as the real world cannot give satisfaction to them (love and companionship from parents for instance). According to literature on television addicted, it was acceptable that kids who were being ignored by their parents tend to spend their time on media. They felt that those media could be a source of escapism from the real world. Due to that, they will feel addicted and cannot live without the media. That is how users and gratifications theory can affect the children. When the media was found to satisfy the needs, the kids will become addicted towards the media and somehow it affects the children thoughts and life.

'Dang! Six more hours.'
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In a nutshell, media really affects the children when most of their times well-spent on television and other media. Advertising is one of the mass communication tools brought by mass media and it consist of persuasive message that is dangerous to the children due to most of the advertisement consist of things that can lead to unhealthy lifestyle. Media is really affecting the kids when their lifestyle, self-enhancement and decision-making process depend on information portraying by media. Therefore, parents are responsible in observing the media consumption by kids. Parents should guide them what they should watch and what they shouldn’t watch on television. They also have to learn how to filter the content and reduce the time spent by the kids on television and other media.


Bryant, J. (1986). Perspectives on media effects. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Dudo, A., Brossard, D., Shanahan, J., Scheufele, D.A., Morgan, M., & Norielli, N. (2011). Science on television in 21st century: recent trends in portrayals and their contributions to public attitudes toward science. Communication research, 38(6), 754-777.