FLAT EARTH?

by Wan Zamzaidi Wan Zakaria

Throughout our lives, we have seen many scientific theories that has been fed to us from the big bang theory, to the Darwin theory of evolution, and many more. Moving forward into this millennium era, another theory of science has been increasingly getting the attention of the public is the ‘flat earth theory’. The flat earth theory didn’t just recently arise as a topic of belief. The flat earth theory could be identified during the dark ages where Christianity did not support the idea that the world was spherical (Allergo, 2017). However from the 7th century, monks and scholars have come up with writing on evidence to show that the world is round. The Islamic world also concurred to the same ideas with their beliefs and scholars and nobody had issues with this idea (Crindle, 1987). Beyond academics of the world, even an empty headed sailor recognized that the earth was spherical with the obvious fact that ships disappear over the horizon with the bottom first the sail to be the last of sight. The same idea applies when seeing land from ships. Evidently from these ideas, it is obvious that the surface curves continually at a certain point, making it one of the clear evidence that the world is spherical.

However, there are percentage of people from around the world who still believes that the world is flat! In a simple poll done in 2018 by the massive market research firm YouGov, results showed that;

  • 84% of respondents said they have always believed the world is round
  • 5% stated “I always thought the world is round, but more recently I am skeptical/have doubts”,
  • 2% stated “I always thought the world is flat, but more recently I am skeptical/have doubts”
  • and 2% went with “I have always believed the world is flat”.
  • The remaining 7% stated “Other/not sure”.

The results shows a small number of flat-earth believers, but is in on a rise as the power of the digital media especially the internet are increasingly showing more and more content that influence and suggest that the world is flat. People who believes in this flat earth theory are more widely known as flat-earthers, and every day, their flat earth society is convincing others with their flat earth society movements (Hiskey, 2019).

So, what does flat-earth-society believes in?

The flat earth society was formed to promote what they think is a misconception of how earth is believed to be spherical. One of the beliefs of this society is that earth is actually shaped like a disc, with the outer rings being Antarctica acts as a border of ice walls. Gravity is formed because earth is moving forward like a rocket creating downward energy, while the moon and the sun is circling on top of the earth disc. (The Flat Earth Society, 2019)

They believe that the earth’s night and day cycle happens when the moon and the sun circles the atmosphere of the earth like a spotlight, whereas gravity is an illusion. The flat earth is said to be accelerating upwards hence pushing us down creating a sense of ‘false gravity’. What lies underneath earth is unknown because there has been no exploration and they believe that the world powers (governments) are purposely avoiding people from exploring this. From their point of view, it just might be pile or soil and rocks. These are among the elaborate geometric theories that flat-earthers have come up with to supposedly make it all work.

The resurgence of the flat earth conspiracy 

We knew that the earth was round since more than 2000 years ago. How can it be possible that people are still arguing about this despite all the scientific facts and evidence that is clearly available? In our everyday life, at a certain degree we may feel like the world is flat through experience. However, this belief can only exist if the people ignore the centuries of evidence that have been accumulated showing that the earth is spherical.

With the new media especially the internet, it has helped this society to influence more people by tapping into high profile people such as celebrities and influencers in social media to slowly plant the flat earth theory into the minds of the public. Slowly, this theory is making a rise in social media platforms. The new generation that we live in nowadays consists of many social media users, but not many are actually media literate people. Online users tend to read through content that does not have research credibility with weak resources. However, because the social media platform are widely used, it creates a sense of belonging to the users and does have an effect towards their subconscious minds to believe in something even if they don’t know anything about.

Apart from that, studies have shown that people that tend to believe in conspiracy theories have the psychological need to be ‘unique’ and different from other people (Lantian, Muller, Cecile, & Douglas, 2017). What could be more unique than believeing in something that could be so outlandish? Because of a social trend that is growing like mushrooms in the social media, people tend to jump on the bandwagon to be part of something they do not know entirely. A psychologist research from University or Kent, Karen Douglas added that all conspiracy theories share a basic thrust. They present an alternative theory about an important issue or event, and construct an (often) vague explanation for why someone is covering up that “true” version of events. “One of the major points of appeal is that they explain a big event but often without going into details,” she said. “A lot of the power lies in the fact that they are vague.”

The movement of the flat-earth-society also have effects on the way the public perceives the authorities. They believes that it is just something the powerful people trying to hide, but form what? And because of these beliefs, it is indirectly cultivating people to disregard the authorities and also scientific evidence that have existed throughout of the century. In a way, it is considered dangerous as it may create more waves of conspiracy theories that will influence people to discard actual science and evidence.

So which side are you in? Is the earth is flat, or spherical?

References

(2019, April 12). Retrieved from The Flat Earth Society: https://www.tfes.org/

Allergo, J. J. (2017). The bottom of the universe: Flat earth science in the Age of Encounter. Sage Journals, 61-85.

Crindle. (1987, 6 25). Cosmas Indicopleustes, Christian Topography. Retrieved from Christian Topography: http://www.ccel.org/ccel/pearse/morefathers/files/cosmas_00_1_preface.htm

Hiskey, D. (2019, April 12). Retrieved from Today I FOund Out: http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2019/06/who-started-the-flat-earth-conspiracy-theory-how-many-actually-believe-this-and-what-do-they-believe-exactly/

Lantian, A., Muller, D., Cecile, N., & Douglas, K. M. (2017). “I know things they don’t know!”: The role of need for uniqueness in belief in conspiracy theories. Social Psychology 48(3), 160-173.

How Political Correctness Ruins Hollywood

by Nursyamimie Sofi

There has been a declining viewership of western films in recent years as majority of American film fanatics and international viewers have turned to alternative entertainment programmes that are not from Hollywood (Fu, 2013). The rise of the Asian film industry, such as K-drama or Hallyu, has driven Western viewers to move away from Hollywood films. Film genres have remained stagnant (Neale, 2005). But Hollywood today is reinstating its dominance in the world by trying to promote a genre that highlights the Western lifestyle and maybe slowly injecting its social living standards in non-Western countries. This is shown on both traditional and new streaming platforms, such as television or at the cinema, as well as Netflix, Hulu etc.

What is political correctness? Roberts (1997) described it as language, policies or measures that are intended to avoid offense or disadvantage to members of particular groups in society. The term refers to avoiding language or behaviour that can be seen as excluding, marginalising, or insulting groups of people considered disadvantaged or discriminated against, especially groups defined by sex or race. In public discourse and the media, it is generally used as a pejorative, implying that these policies are excessive or unwarranted. In laymen’s term, it is an act deemed by liberals in America as a righteous virtue in upholding the minority race and sexual preference (Spencer, 1994).

To understand the current political correctness of today, one must look back at the origin of the movement. The term was first coined in the late 19th and 20th century under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin in Soviet Russia. Its function was to implement a condition of a socially contrast way of thought in the nation in the form of being socially and theoretically correct to give little room to any opposition opinion with the rulers. The indoctrination is heavily injected into factors that weigh heavily in a society, such as culture, social norms and race.

By late 1980s, most Western media and reporters criticised the term as a “usage that was deemed by the left to place censorship in the language being used in the news”. They argue its existence and usage is to “protect” ethnic minority culture and sexual preference.  This has led to the undermining of its credibility and reliability as it intends to appease the left wing of politics in the US and European countries. Certain phrases or words are deemed “racist” or “intolerant” to minorities and the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) group (Raehn, 1997).

Hollywood is the latest to adopt the virtues of political correctness to appeal to the younger liberal masses. By the end of the millennium, Hollywood and entertainment industries in America face rigid competition from other entertainment businesses in producing music or films that cater to a wider audience outside America. Unlike the 1970s and1980s when Hollywood thrived globally, the viewers today are tuning less to Western production and are giving their support to local industries. Given also the fact that quarter of the US population is ethnically non-European ancestry, this demographic has demanded more representation of their own kind to be portrayed in TV shows and films.

As the US tries to uphold its “righteous” values and force them other nations, this too has been considered as another factor why the US entertainment industry is losing its fans.  Viewers outside the US cannot comply to or accept the virtues displayed by Hollywood. Recent Hollywood films even displayed distorted historical facts.  In late 2018, English director Christopher Nolan released his historical World War II film Dunkirk. The film was about the Britain army stranded at the shores of Dunkirk in France. They were trying to flee to England from the German army. Keep in mind this is a World War II film based on a true story. The distorted historical figures in the movie were the Britain army being portrayed. A few of the army men were actors of the African-American race. However, during the war, the Britain army did not consist of non-European ethnic fighting at the front line in Europe. This bad portrayal falsified history and gave a false view of the event to generations who watch the movie.

Another form of political correctness culture in the media is the diversity image Hollywood is trying to uphold in presenting a more diverse cast in today’s shows, compared with 20 years ago when most of the cast were Caucasian actors and actresses. The diversity that is being shown in TV shows and films from Hollywood often depicts an interracial cast instead of a cast that is fully non-whites or blacks. It is apparent that diversity reflected in Hollywood today only highlights multiracial cast when the make-up of the world population consists of different races with its own unique cultures, traditions, ways of living and behaviours.

But what has taken Hollywood by storm is a movement that is tied closely to politics in the US. The recent Oscars was one of the platforms used for such a political movement. One of the prominent women figures, Oprah Winfrey, used her airtime to preach women empowerment to the masses as opposed to receiving the award. What’s intriguing in this isn’t just how politics suddenly and explosively intersected with an awards-season release, it’s how the studio failed to punch back. Universal execs could have argued that the film is a celebration of an American hero; they could even offer to screen the movie at the White House. They did neither, partly because filmmakers refused to compromise their principles, and partly because they knew that placating conservatives would backfire at the Oscars.

What is obvious from the observation of political correctness is that Hollywood has a lot to study on the matter before adopting it senselessly onto its production and causing an uproar among the majority of audiences that can’t relate to the virtues of political correctness. Also, the adaptation should be freed of any political agenda to gain favours in the political American spectrum.

References


FAIRCLOUGH, N. (2003). `Political Correctness’: the Politics of Culture and Language.

Discourse & Society, 14(1), 17–28.doi:10.1177/0957926503014001927 

Fu, W. W. (2013). National audience tastes in Hollywood film genres: Cultural distance and

linguistic affinity. Communication Research40(6), 789-817.

Neale, S. (2005). Genre and hollywood. Routledge.

Raehn, R. V. (1997, June). The Historical Roots of Political Correctness’. In Free Congress

Foundation (Vol. 44).

Roberts, P. (1997). Paulo Freire and political correctness. Educational Philosophy and

Theory29(2), 83-101.

Spencer, M. E. (1994Spencer, M. E. (1994, December). Multiculturalism,“political correctness,” and

the politics of identity. In Sociological Forum(Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 547-567). Kluwer Academic

Publishers-Plenum Publishers.

2019 Women’s March: The endless fight for women’s rights

by Puteri Sarah Hanim Mohamad Shaiful

If your Instagram, Twitter or Facebook feed was a constant stream of images and video from the recent 2019 Women’s March, you were not alone. Social movements reflect dissatisfaction with socio-political environments and are a platform for communicating dissent. In other words, by mobilising large numbers of people, collective action can be taken to address discontent. Social media pages and online platforms allow us to connect and communicate with the world. We can share what is going on within the global community and take part in emerging conversations. Women have constantly been undermined in the eyes of our society, causing them to have to fight for the equality they know they deserve. This fight is known as the feminist movement and has been in the works for centuries. Although women have gained a lot since the start of the feminist movement, the fight for equality is still nowhere near over –from fighting for the right to vote years ago to the over pricing of feminine products now. 

Photo taken from the Malay Mail on 09 March 2019
by Ida Nadirah Ibrahim “In Women’s Day march, hundreds gather to demand end to patriarchy”

Thousands march for women’s rights, gender equality in KL  by Yimie Yong by The Star Online mentioned that, More than 100 women gathered in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to take part in the #WomensMarchMy on March 9.  The event aimed to call for greater women’s rights. This is usually an open platform for women to put forth what they are fighting for. Several groups, including Women’s Aid Organisation, Sisters in Islam, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender activists, joined the rally. The near 1km walk spread over from Sogo Shopping Mall. During the walk, social activists and individuals of various foundations conveyed notices, banners, and standards. Nonetheless, it is dismal to realize that the open did not so much handle the targets of the walk as the general population were for the most part centered around the LGBT people group who joined the occasion. The gathering, as a feature of its #PelangiCampaign, accepted the open door to advocate for LGBT equivalent rights for all LGBT individuals during the walk.

Pic taken from @KuasaSiswa (Fahmi Reza) https://twitter.com/kuasasiswa/status/1105367379800813568?s=20

It must be noted that issues that are important to one group may not affect another or may not even be important to observers outside the sphere of concern in the Women’s March, yet it does not take away the fact that these are the issues that have to be tackled.

According to Arveent Kathirtchelcan in MalaysiaKini Understanding the Women’s March article, Many felt that specific requests in the Women’s March were unpalatable. One such picture from the occasion that has since turned into a web sensation demonstrates a lady conveying a notice expressing ‘Let My Nips Be Free’ close by an illustration of naked bosoms. The objection was centered around pictures, for example, these, censuring women’s activists for not discussing appropriate issues during the walk

Photo taken from Blogspot http://khairulryezal.blogspot.com/2019/03/malaysia-baru-lgbt-berleluasa.html

If you’re one of those who ask, “what else do women want?”, bear in mind that a number of issues were raised during the march. Here’s a list of things that women are — the elimination of gender discrimination, an end to violence against women, the strengthening of women’s rights, and a push for equal opportunities and wages.

The policing of women’s bodies, from what they wear to whether or not they wish to have a child, is up for discussion and everyone seems to have an opinion about these matters. The narrative that women should wear certain clothes and act in ways that’ll keep men from sexually harassing or raping them is problematic in so many ways.
Not only does it put the responsibility and blame on women, but is also an insult to men who are perfectly capable of respecting women. The issue of child marriages is not new in Malaysia. Every time a story of a much older man marrying a child is covered in the news, outraged comments and calls for the ban of child marriages can be heard only for the noise to gradually disappear after a while. Not this time. Advocates for the ban of child marriages are taking it to streets to call for the ban, without exceptions.

It’s a new year: a chance to move beyond the mistakes of the past and build a new beginning.  Women’s rights include rights that establish the same social, economic, and political status for women as for men. Women’s rights ensure that ladies won’t stand up to isolation dependent on their sex. Women’s rights is thought little of these days, yet when one looks at the clash of women, it goes out to that there is far to go to achieve real equalization. It wasn’t until the twentieth century that laws constrained by the organization regarding ladies rights made indisputably the most basic obstructions checking Women’s rights. Since most women missed the mark on the informational and fiscal resources that would enable them to challenge the social requests, women, all around, have recognized their inferior status as their singular decision. Women drove various administrative undertakings to ensure their throwing a poll, work and conceptive rights.

Women have had numerous incredible achievements with their challenge, yet many still choose to disregard the way that there is sexual separation. Men are still more regarded than Women. In addition to the fact that they receive more significant salary, however the items that are advertised towards them are less expensive than those showcased for women. In any case, new ages are overwhelming the development with even guys supporting women in their battle. The issue of women rights close by isn’t leaving at any point in the near future, however its developing fame offers would like to each one of those battling for correspondence.

REFERENCES

A.T.M Shahjahan, K.Chisty. (2014). “Social Media research and its effect on our society” . International journal of Information 7 communication Engineering , 2014.

Clark, Eric. . (2012). “Social Media & Social Movements: A qualitative study of Occupy Wall Street.”.

Yong, Y. (9 March, 2019). Thousands march for women’s rights, gender equality in KL. Retrieved from The Star Online : https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2019/03/09/thousands-march-for-womens-rights-gender-equality-in-kl/

Kathirtchelvan, A. (11 March, 2019). Understanding the Women’s March . Retrieved from MalaysiaKini : https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/467450

Remembering the victims of Christchurch shooting

by Muhammad Faiz bin Mokhtar

It has been two weeks since the event that changed the lives of not just Muslims, but to the rest of the world as well. The world is stunned by the news of the man who shot 50 people in a mosque  (ABC News New Zealand, 2019). This event will be a lasting memory in the minds of the people of the world. This act is not only devastating to the people around the world, but more importantly, the lives of their families as well as those who knew the victims personally. New Zealand, a country known for extreme sports such as bungee jumping and friendly people, is left shocked as such a crime is known to be rare in the country.in their history. As the incident is the first of its kind in New Zealand’s history, all media have been covering the incident on large scale for the few weeks.  This has given journalists a chance to inform the public about the shooting and its aftermath.

Social media presents a medium that is a cost-effective, which means it is interactive,  association and co-formation above communication that is one-to-many; integrates communication and distribution channels, provides customization opportunities, and delivers greater speed to the information communication and feedback (Shilbury, Westerbeck, Quick, Funk, & Karg, 2014) . Social media has given the platform for people to voice their concerns and it is a way that news can travel instantaneously into the minds of the citizens of the world. Internet presents a virtual public community allowing citizens to discuss public issues and make their voices heard (Zhou & Moy, 2007). When comparing with the traditional Internet and communication technologies (ICTs), social media manages the conversation content or interaction as an artifact of information in an online environment (Yates & Paquette, 2010). 

However, social media has become a message channel for the shooter to livestream his actions for the world to see. The shooter, armed with automatic rifle, gunned down 50 patrons of the mosque and he filmed the shooting live-streamed on Facebook (Wakefield, 2019). The video has been shared on social media through all platforms, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube, in which millions have watched this act of terror through their phones, laptops and tablets. Social media, despite its reach to reach millions of the world, has showcased to the users themselves what kind of content that they might see. Impressionable people may follow suit and some would be fearful of the world due to the fact that it is shown by the social media itself. Online media allows netizens to share their opinions, retorts, or pass remarks about a certain phenomenon (Ekawati, 2018).

Jacinda Ardern, a leader that sets the example

The world is left shocked and astonished by the act of the shooter, but one woman stood out among them all, the New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern. Being a leader, one must show compassion towards the victims, strength for the people to look upon and wisdom for her actions. Ardern is an example of how a leader should act. Rather than just offer condolences and sympathy, she showed compassion for the victims’ families. A disaster or an event that changes the perception of a nation will make the people around the world to shift their focus on her. As a leader, she must be an example to other leaders on how to act in times of distress and chaos. The picture below shows that she’s wearing a headscarf, which depicts her respect towards the victims’ religion and culture.

“You may have chosen us,” said Ardern, referring to the killer, anger in her voice. “But we utterly reject and condemn you.” (Roy, 2019)

“She has shown a quiet, strong leadership, and been very focused on looking after the people who are most affected straight away. The killer has barely been mentioned.” (Roy, 2019)

In The Guardian’s article, Roy interviewed Paul Buchanan, a security expert in the 36th Parallel.  Buchanan commented that:

“Saying that her strength was her empathy, and she has “excelled” in this arena during a time of crisis. She is also an expert delegator, Buchanan says, and has delegated security reviews and inquiries about how the killer was missed to senior, trusted colleagues, allowing her to focus on healing a traumatized country.

“She is like the mother of the nation. When it comes to events like this, I think her touch is near perfect,” says Buchanan.

“The way Trump and others talk, tough talk, after terror attacks, all that is posturing. And sometimes it is designed to mask weakness, sometimes it is a thirst for revenge. Ardern is doing none of that.”

“It is a leadership style that particularly suits New Zealand. New Zealand does have a serious dark side, it does have racism. But what she is doing is giving us a moment to confront these demons, this darkness and change our ways.”

Extracted from (Roy, 2019) article when interviewed Paul Buchanan, security expert in the 36th Parallel.  https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/mar/19/real-leaders-do-exist-jacinda-ardern-uses-solace-and-steel-to-guide-a-broken-nation

The traits that a true leader should have exhibited under intense situation which are Compassion, truthfulness and composure. Therefore, it is no surprise that the world is lauding her and giving her positive comments along with support for her stance on the subject. People worldwide have been commending Arden’s actions throughout the whole ordeal.

A leader should always be quick in responding to critical or emergency situations such as the mass shooting. This can be seen in Arden’s decision to push for the ban on semi-automatic and automatic rifles in New Zealand. Not only that, owners of rifles too have resorted to relinquishing their own rifles in wake of the shooting out of respect (Graham-McLay, 2019).

New Zealand: Citizen’s response

New Zealand, a small nation east of Australia, known for agriculture and extreme sports was tested with an event that has changed the way people see the world nowadays – that the world is indeed full of violence and hatred. As covered in the article, the world is shocked by the actions of one man who went into a place of worship and had committed a massacre. What is astonishing is the level of solidarity among New Zealanders post-shooting. They have been offering victims sympathy, empathy, as well as have been helping the victims to overcome trauma and grief.  Social media has become a tool used by people all over the world to send messages of support and love to the victims. Hashtags have been used on Twitter to discuss the mass shooting. One can easily find the messages for the victims posted under hashtags related to the incident.

The New Zealanders have shown solidarity by standing outside the mosques in a line to which can represents that they are willing to protect what they considered to be their brothers and sisters despite the difference in religion, culture and skin color.  Not only that, the incident also prompted some of the New Zealanders to learn more about Islam. Some of them even converted to Islam after the incident. Sonny Bill Williams, a New Zealand All-Blacks Rugby Star is one of the famous names in the Islam and he even visited the victims who were being treated to provide support. Recently, his mother and teammate, Offa Tuungafasi, converted to Islam as well (Astro , 2019).

In conclusion, the media has the power to shape the perception of the people in the world. Along with that, the media could lead to people thinking that the world might be a dangerous place to live in, but there is kindness in this world and the people of New Zealand along with their leader, Ardern, have exhibited those traits. In memory of the victims, I would like to ask for all of us to pray for the fallen victims.

References

ABC News New Zealand. (2019, March 19). Christchurch shooting death toll rises to 50 after one more victim discovered at mosque. Retrieved from ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation): https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-03-17/christchurch-shooting-death-toll-rises-to-50-new-zealand/10909288

Astro , A. (2019, March 27). Beberapa hari susulan tragedi Christchurch, ibu serta rakan baik Sonny Bill Williams masuk Islam. Retrieved from Astro Awani: http://www.astroawani.com/berita-dunia/beberapa-hari-susulan-tragedi-christchurch-ibu-serta-rakan-baik-sonny-bill-williams-masuk-islam-202370

Ekawati, R. (2018). PRAGMATIC ANALYSIS OF ANGER EXPRESSION USED BY NETIZEN ON ROHINGYA REFUGEES IN WEBSITE . Skripsi thesis, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta., 1-16.

Graham-McLay, C. (2019, July 13). New Zealand Begins Gun Buyback Prompted by Mosque Attacks. Retrieved from NYTimes.com: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/13/world/asia/new-zealand-guns.html

Roy, E. A. (2019, March 19). ‘Real leaders do exist’: Jacinda Ardern uses solace and steel to guide a broken nation. Retrieved from The Guardian Online: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/mar/19/real-leaders-do-exist-jacinda-ardern-uses-solace-and-steel-to-guide-a-broken-nation

Shilbury, D., Westerbeck, H., Quick, S., Funk, D., & Karg, A. (2014). Strategic sport marketing Fourth Edition. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.

Wakefield, J. (2019, March 19). Christchurch shootings: Social media races to stop attack footage. Retrieved from BBC News: https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-47583393

Yates, D., & Paquette, S. (2010). Emergency Knowledge Management and Social Media Technologies: A Case Study of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake. ASIS&T ’10 Proceedings of the 73rd ASIS&T Annual Meeting on Navigating Streams in an Information Ecosystem – Volume 47 (pp. 1-9). Pittsburgh: American Society for Information Science .

Zhou, Y., & Moy, P. (2007). Parsing Framing Processes: The Interplay Between Online Public Opinion and Media Coverage. Journal of Communication ISSN 0021-9916, 78-98.

Why is Feminism popular? Look at the way we treat our women

by Muhammad Naim Muhamad Ali

As of 2013, the world population is estimated to be around 7, 162, 119. 434 people, with 49.5 percent of the population are women (United Nations Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2019). According to the statistics provided, Malaysia accounted 31.97 million as of 2017, with 48.60 percent is female, yet their every action is still scrutinized, which in turn influences their being and livelihood (Masika & Joekes, 1996). Women, regardless of age, face society’s discrimination when doing the same things that men got away with. Women today are working together to fight for equal treatment, rights, and privileges enjoyed by their male counterparts. However, such efforts showed slow progress due to some factors.

Women generally have fewer rights and opportunities than men (Peace Corps, 2017). The report by Peace Corps highlighted that women have fewer opportunities for economic participation than men, following less access to basic and higher education, health, and safety risks and political representation. Women often assumed the role of wifehood and motherhood which were regarded as women’s most noble – if not only, professions in the early centuries. In the 20th century, for the first time in history, women in most nations, the United Kingdom for instance, finally won the right to vote, as well as to get an education and better job opportunities (Lethbridge, 2018). Perhaps most importantly, what they have fought for accomplished a reevaluation of traditional views of their roles in society

Source: Financial Times

Men are generally perceived as the head of the family. As such, a man is seen as his family’s breadwinner, while his wife will be staying at home to raise their children and take care of the household. In the past, this was considered as a norm for women – to be housewives — but as time goes by, living expenses hiked due to changes in developments and policies. To cushion the rising cost of living, women then started to look for ways to contribute to their families. To do this, they started working — it doesn’t matter how much they were getting paid as long as they could help their husbands.

A year or so ago, I found an article published in The Star newspaper titled “Gender-wage bias still raging”. The article focused on the wage gap in Malaysia. In 2015, women generally earned 8.4 percent less than men. Data retrieved from the National Statistics Department’s Salaries and Wages Survey Report 2013 showed that men typically earn RM2,260 a month, while women earn RM2, 071 for doing the same job. Issues concerning the wage gap between men and women gave rise to the question: why do governments have such biased policies when it comes to salaries for men and women? Don’t women deserve to be paid as much as men? The wage gap is real, as shown in studies done throughout the years. The article too highlighted that despite being skilled, women are paid less than their male colleagues, who are paid 39.7 percent more than them (around RM588).

I recalled watching a movie based on a true event, Made in Dagenham, which dabbled about semi-skilled Ford women machinist who went on strike due to denied pay raise by the management. It may seem a cliché to some people, but this is the reality. Women hardly get pay raise because most of the time they are deemed less capable and productive than men in their work performance due to their childrearing and other related women-related roles (Masika & Joekes, 1996).

Another issue concerning women that should be addressed is, “Are women being taxed for being women?” Yes! The New York Times (2018) highlighted that women are not aware that they are paying more for certain products and services. This is due to the Pink Tax which is additional charges for certain items targeted at women. A lot of research on the pink tax found that women have been paying more than 42 percent than men, on average $1,351 a year of extra costs (Elliot, 2019). Tampons are considered a luxury and not a necessity in many countries. In the United States, some states abide by the tampon tax. The razor is, however, zero-rated in tax because it is used by men who believe that their need to be cleanly shaven is a human right. As such, it is interesting to note that whatever that is used and considered a necessity by men (in order to maintain their hygiene health) is usually zero-rated, unlike items that are needed by women for the same purpose. Is the use of tampons, not a human right? Women must pay at least US$7 for tampons for at least 40 years of their lives and as such, it is now considered a luxury that can’t even be afforded by those from poor countries.

Women did not demand to be treated like men. They demand to be treated equally – because the idea is both genders are equal, but not identical. There are things women are not supposed to do unless in circumstances that they could not afford to avoid. Society, especially men, must end the stigma and discriminations towards women because the world has evolved, and this is no longer a man’s world. Women are not second-class citizens. They do not deserve to be treated with discrimination and prejudice. Not all women are damsels in distress.

Feminism is not a dangerous word as some men would think (some might think that women are going for global domination). It is also not a dangerous movement. It only means the advocacy of women’s rights based on the equality of the sexes (Offen, 1988). People – especially men – need to understand the concept of advocating for women’s rights. They may not have to support the cause, but showing respect to it, is more than enough because how would we feel if we are treated unfairly on a daily basis? This topic might seem petty compared with racial inequality faced by some races for many years. But, in any culture and race, there are men and women who live together and each one of them should embrace and celebrate diversity and differences with respect and harmony.

References

Elliot, C. (2019). The Pink Tax- The Cost of Being a Female Consumer. Retrieved July 22, 2019, from Listen: Money Matters: https://www.listenmoneymatters.com/the-pink-tax/

Lethbridge, L. (2018, February 2). The women’s march: how the Suffragettes changed Britain. Retrieved July 22, 2019, from Financial Times: https://www.ft.com/content/22776930-05f6-11e8-9e12-af73e8db3c71

Masika, R., & Joekes, S. (1996). Employment and sustainable livelihoods: A gender perspectives. Institute of Development Studies, Gender Office of the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA), Brighton. Retrieved July 22, 2019

Offen, K. (1988). Defining Feminism: A Comparative Historical Approach (Vol. 14). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Retrieved July 22, 2019, from https://www.jstor.org/stable/3174664

Peace Corps. (2017). Global Issues: Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment. Retrieved July 22, 2019, from Peace Corps – Educator Resources: https://www.peacecorps.gov/educators/resources/global-issues-gender-equality-and-womens-empowerment/

Salt, K. (2018, March 2). The Hidden Taxes on Women. Retrieved July 22, 2019, from The New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/02/business/women-hidden-taxes.html

United Nations Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2019). World Population Prospects 2019. Retrieved July 22, 2019, from United Nations Population Division: https://population.un.org/wpp/DataQuery/

Is person living with OCD dangerous?

by Noor Farihah binti Rozali

Have you ever seen people wash their hand roughly and keep repeating the same thing all over again? Or take a long shower due to fear of germs and contamination? Do you have friends who constantly check all doors to make sure they are locked or who check their items for many times to ensure that everything is put in the correct order according to their size and colour? If yes, you don’t have to feel worried because they are not dangerous, and they can be treated.

All situations mentioned above are symptoms associated with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder or in short, we can call it OCD. OCD is an anxiety and mental health disorder caused by an imbalance in neurotransmitters that can cause extra discomfort to those who experience it. OCD is a common, chronic (long-lasting) disorder in which a person has uncontrollable, reoccurring thoughts (obsessions) and behaviours (compulsions) that he or she feels the urge to repeat over and over in response to the obsession (NIMH, 2016).

Those who live with OCD can be categorised as  washers (they are afraid of contamination so they tend to wash things over and over again), checkers (as they repeatedly check things to make sure all are locked, off and so on because they are afraid of danger), doubters (having doubt if everything is not perfect or done just right, something terrible will happen, sinners (think that they will be punished if they did something wrong, counters (they may have delusions about certain numbers, colours or arrangements) and arrangers (obsessed with order and symmetry) (Pietrabissa, et al., 2015).

Back then, when I was a journalist, I did a special news report about OCD and interviewed one patient with a very bad OCD to the extent that she had to seek treatment from  Kuala Lumpur Hospital. She told me that she first experienced OCD-related symptoms when she was 13, but she never knew that she had it back then. Her family members started to sense something was wrong with her when she started spending almost five hours a day just to shower. Can you imagine how hard is that situation? Her OCD got worse when she entered college because whenever she went for her classes, she would go back to her hostel just to make sure that she had all her doors locked. This then caused her depression. She said no one wanted to be her friend as her OCD was disturbing. Then her parents took her out from college for a while to give her special treatment and now she is getting better.

Sometimes, we may think that situation is somewhat normal, but OCD patients really need help and treatment. We may think that it is good to have OCD because our house will remain clean, tidy and everything will be in order, but it is not easy to live with those who have OCD. Can you imagine if you are married to someone with OCD? You would have to face his or her frustration and anger each time you make a mess? You might even have to wait for hours just for your partner to get ready whenever you want to go out. This could affect your relationship. Yes, I am married to an OCD person and I know how it feels.

The most important thing is that we need to support those with OCD and help them. In my situation, for example, I always remind my partner not to take his shower for too long or not to wash his hand roughly as they are already clean. We need to distract them from doing something repeatedly. But if things are getting worse, we need to take them to get special treatment like cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) or medication.

OCD can affect both adults and children. However, there is nothing to be worried about as OCD can be treated even it takes time. In general, CBT teaches OCD patients with different ways of thinking, behaving, and reacting to the obsessions and compulsions (NIMH, 2016). Exposure and Response Prevention (EX/RP) is a specific form of CBT which has been shown to help many patients recover from OCD. EX/RP involves gradually exposing OCD patients to their fears or obsessions and teaching them healthy ways to deal with the anxiety they cause (Rajashekharaiah & Verma, 2016). Other therapies, such as habit reversal training, can also help to overcome this compulsion.

Besides that, doctors may prescribe different types of medications to help treat OCD patients, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and a type of serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) called clomipramine (Stein, 2013). SSRIs and SRIs are commonly used to treat depression, but they are also helpful for the symptoms of OCD. SSRIs and SRIs may take 10–12 weeks to start working, longer than required for the treatment of depression. But one needs to remember that these medications may cause side effects, such as headaches, nausea, or difficulty sleeping. People taking clomipramine, which is in a different class of medication from the SSRIs, sometimes may experience dry mouth, constipation, rapid heartbeat and dizziness. These side effects are usually not severe for most people and improve as treatment continues, especially if the dose starts off low and is increased slowly over time.

In addition, another thing that OCD patients can do to overcome their conditions are first, learn triggers that worsen the symptoms to come out with effective coping strategies. Secondly, get enough sleep as it is good to have relaxing time and resting mind. Thirdly, one must consume nutritious food to have a good physical health. Fourthly, break big problems down into small chunks to get everything in a good order and ensure that things are manageable. Next, deal with issues immediately and keep calm. Lastly, address the emotion where OCD patients can find a trusted and comfortable person to share their feelings with. Talk to a friend if one is feeling sad, depressed, or angry about. Invite friends to go somewhere or do something to remove self from the situation.

In a nutshell, those with OCD are not dangerous, but they need to get help and treatment for them to have a better life. We must try to help them, support them, understand their situation and encourage them to get better. For those who are living with OCD, no need to worry because they will get better soon if support is given to them. It just takes time and do not give up.

References

NIMH. (2016). OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER: When Unwanted Thoughts or Irresistible Actions Take Over. National Institute of Mental Health.

Pietrabissa, G., Manzoni, G. M., Gibson, P., Boardman, D., Gori, A., & Castelnuovo, G. (16 Deecember, 2015). Brief strategic therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder: a clinical and research protocol of a one-group observational study. BMJ Open.

Rajashekharaiah, M., & Verma, P. (2016). Phenomenology of Obsessions and Compulsions in Indian Patients. International Journal of Contemporary Medical Research.

Stein, D. J. (2013). Obsessive compulsive disorder. South African Journal of Psychiatry .

HOW IT FEELS LIKE TO BE THE THIRD GENERATION WORKING AT NST

by Noor Amirah Asraf

I was recently asked about what it feels like to be the third generation member from my family working at the New Straits Times (NST). I have never really thought about this before. Why? Maybe… I needed a job and had seen an NST ad for sub-editors, I applied, went for the interview and got the job.

But this question made me recall the times when my father, Asraf Dahari, who was an NST photographer for 15 years, used to tell us, his children, about the joy he had working here. For as long as I can remember, my father has always described the years he spent at NST as the best time of his life. Even to this day, whenever we talk about NST or when people ask him about his experience working here, he would have nothing but good things to say.

When I told him that I wanted to apply to be a sub-editor at NST, he immediately supported my decision. He even went the extra mile in making sure that I prepared all the documents needed to apply for the position.

When I told him that I got the job that I wanted, he was overjoyed. He kept telling me how he was happy that his daughter chose to continue the family tradition of working here. He was beaming with pride when he sent me off on my first day of work. He told me how he wished my late grandfather, or Tok Ayah, was around to see his granddaughter serve the same English daily they once worked for.

My Tok Ayah, Dahari Ali, first joined NST as a reporter before he was appointed as chief reporter. The last post he held before he retired in 1982 was assistant group editor. My dad idolised his father. I remember well how he used to tell me great stories about Tok Ayah.

Tok Ayah was one of the very few people who supported my father’s decision to become a photographer instead of the engineer that his family wanted him to be. It was him who inspired my father to take pride in what he did for a living. It was him who taught my father to appreciate the hard work put in publishing newspapers — from writing, finding pictures that fit the stories to editing — Tok Ayah taught him not to take even the smallest details for granted. It was Tok Ayah who taught my father that working for a newspaper is a job that comes with great responsibilities –we are responsible for informing people about the things that are happening around us. 

Amid mounting excitement to embark on a new adventure in my first real, serious job, I suddenly felt like I had a huge burden to bear.

My father’s and Tok Ayah’s stories that I’ve kept close to my heart all these years, somehow, made me doubt myself when I first started working here.

On my first day of work, I couldn’t help but feel scared. Truth be told, as I was nervously walking to my desk for the first time, I could feel a tight knot forming in the pit of my stomach. I had so many thoughts running through my head. I remember asking myself whether I made the right decision to work here. What if I’m not good enough? What if I can’t live up to my Tok Ayah’s or my father’s good name and reputation? What if people expect me to be as good or even better than them?

As I did not know much about the roles of a sub-editor (except for the basic information about the job that I found on the Internet), I spent the first few weeks trying to adapt and learn as much as I could. I would get anxious whenever some of my father’s colleagues and senior employees who once worked with my Tok Ayah came up to me and greeted me (all thanks to my father who excitedly told his friends on Facebook about his daughter joining NST).

The fact that some people knew my father and Tok Ayah made me feel like I had to prove that I deserve to be here because of my skills, and not because I was someone’s daughter or granddaughter.

The first few months were tough. The nature of my work, which requires me to stay cool, calm and collected, however, left me little time for self-doubt.

My colleagues, too, have been helpful in guiding me as I learn the fundamentals of my job. I slowly learnt to stop comparing myself with my father and Tok Ayah, but instead, make them as my inspiration to keep on improving myself as a sub-editor. I’ve learnt to find joy in completing my tasks the way my father always did when he was working here and emulate my Tok Ayah’s passion and dedication to his job. I’ve discovered that by doing so, I no longer feel the need to prove myself to anyone. The only thing that I should be doing is to have faith in myself and trust my capabilities.

Working here for the past three and a half years has taught me a lot about life and myself. I’ve learnt to appreciate the beauty of language, get out of my comfort zone and be more open to learning new things, and along the way, I’ve not only made new friends but also found a new family.  Working here means I get to learn new things every day.  Being the third generation working here has only given me the privilege to know why this place holds a special place in my father’s heart.  And for that, I will forever feel grateful and lucky to be part of the big NST family.

The Present and Future for LGBT Youth in Malaysia

by Wan Allef Elfi Danial bin Wan Sukeri

Lights. Gone. Before. Time. This is not the actual acronym for LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transsexual) but rather an interesting analogy that perfectly describes the LGBT youth in Malaysia. The LGBT community is often considered as the scourge of the society due its members’ lifestyle, which was perceived as immoral and unnatural. Malaysia is notorious for its ban on homosexuality in which any sexual acts involving same sex individuals are heavily frowned upon and in some cases, punishable by law. A popular case involving the public caning of two lesbians who were caught committing sexual acts in a car (Lamb, 2018) is a distinguishable example. But rather than dwelling on the past, I would like to talk about the present and future concerning the LGBT youth in Malaysia.

From showing signs of conflicting qualities, such as men femininity or women masculinity to dressing up differently from the norms of fashion, Malaysian LGBT youths are constantly under attack in Malaysia. However, a study titled How Race and Religion Shape Millennial Attitudes on Sexual and Reproductive Health conducted by Dan Cox and Robert P. Jones from the Public Religion Research Institute indicated that millennials are more accepting towards homosexuality compared with the people of the previous generation (Felicetti, 2015). Furthermore, they also find it difficult to express themselves within a safe space. Even posting any LGBT-related matters on social media platforms warrants them full-fledged discrimination and hatred from society. This fear is the main reason of why many people from the LGBT community are discreet on their sexuality and refuse to further showcase their talents and abilities to the world. Without a proper platform and support from the society, LGBT youth will fade into the background, their talents grow unpolished and their confidence turned nil. Eventually, the spark that once resides in them will grow weaker, as well and their dreams become forgotten.

It is depressing to know that Malaysia is oblivious from the creativity, achievements and amazing ideas that can be produced by the LGBT youth. LGBT youth can never find the opportunity to shine and display their talents properly. The LGBT community in Malaysia should come together and strive for the similar purpose and goals, not fighting for the rights that obviously go beyond the tolerance of religion, such as same-sex marriage and gender change, but instead for the protection against being discriminated, bullied and abused. Hopefully, the future generation is inspired to open their eyes and mind to see the suffering and torment faced by the LGBT community whilst providing protection to them when needed. Empathy is a treasure that needs to be nurtured within the younger generation. Aside from that, I also hope that young LGBT representatives are given a fair and equal chance to be featured in various fields, such as entertainment, economy and politics. In my opinion, everyone should have the same rights to contribute to this blessed land.

It is very crucial to note that the chances of LGBT youth exposed to all types of bullying are fairly high. These bullying activities if not prevented at a young age, can lead to worse repercussions in the future, such as physical abuse and murder. However, it is upsetting to consider a person getting murdered just for loving another person. It is sad and frightening to see people justifying these horrible acts for the sake of preserving Islam sanctity. As days past by and we are inching closer to the year of 2020, the cases of LGBT misfortunes seem to be rising at an alarming rate. In 2018, a video of two men being beaten up by a group of people for allegedly having sex in a car in Kuala Lumpur went viral and caused uproar among the Malaysian society (Adam, 2018). Such similar incidents are likely to occur again if no safety is guaranteed for the LGBT community. Apart from that, this issue can sprout other concerns, such as the increasing cases of LGBT youth affected by mental health risks, often leading to suicidal thoughts and self-harm. A study done by Meyer (2003) showed that stigma, prejudice, and discrimination towards the LGBT community create a hostile and stressful social environment for them that lead to mental health problems. To make things worse, the society seems to be satisfied in pushing them, the LGBT community, to the edge of the cliff.

Islam is a religion of peace and perfection. But the Muslims are not. There have been guidelines and proper methods in handling a phenomenon like this. Unfortunately, some people took matters into their own hands in dealing with homosexuality issues. To many, inflicting pain and abuse upon the LGBT community is a justifiable act. If this behaviour is made into common tradition and hatred is spread, the LGBT youth will face a bleak future. In June 2017, a teenager from Penang was beaten and raped by a gang of young men for having effeminate traits (Thiagarajan, 2017). 18-year-old T. Nhaveen was brutally assaulted and ended up being brain-dead from the various wounds that he sustained on his head, hips and multiple burn marks on his back (Thiagarajan, 2017). Unfortunately, Nhaveen did not survive from the incident and died later on, which led to the case being reclassified as murder (Logeiswary & Sekaran, 2017). Is this the life that the LGBT community has to endure? It seems like being a heterosexual is a privilege.

Furthermore, the Prime Minister of Malaysia has released his statement on LGBT rights in Malaysia by stating that their lifestyle will not be part of the nation’s value system (Pillai, 2018). In order to find solace within the society, LGBT community depends on the millennial’s perception and acceptance towards their rights as those millennials are the future of the country. This is where the upcoming generation, regardless of their sexuality differences, plays a vital part in securing a better future for their homosexual allies. Decades ago, homosexuality topics are considered as a strong taboo and are often refrained from being discussed in households and school settings. Undoubtedly, this has resulted in various repercussions, such as parents of LGBT individuals not knowing the correct way to show support, the society finding it enjoyable to bully effeminate boys, ridiculing masculine girls and many more.

In Western countries, such as the United States, LGBT communities are given rights to be represented in media and entertainment although the appearances are still rather marginal. Some LGBT youth consisting of celebrities are sculpted into icons and followed by millions of fans across the globe. However, this situation is non-existent in Malaysia. This is due to the discrimination woven through decades of fear mongering towards the LGBT community the second their sexuality is revealed. This further pushes the possibilities of LGBT community hiding behind masks and suppressing their skills. Aside from that, a survey conducted by the trend forecasting agency, J. Walter Thompson Innovation Group, young Americans aged 13 to 20 were discovered to be far more open-minded and tolerant than the older millennial groups regarding the issues of gender and sexuality (Zing, 2016). Lastly, the millennials provide their support in increasing government funding towards the prevention and treatment of HIV and AIDS and accept more LGBT immigrants from other countries that criminalize sexuality (Cohen, 2018).

In short, the LGBT community, especially those from the younger generation, should not be hindered from expressing their true self and showcasing their talents, abilities and ideas. Hopefully, Malaysians will learn to be more understanding and accepting towards the LGBT community. This is easier in the current proliferation of media technology. With the help of the Internet, the younger generation nowadays is broadly exposed to differences of race, religion and culture, feminism, gay rights and other pertaining global issues (DiSabito, 2014). Additionally, LGBT youths need to be assured that the future can hold a bright prospect for them. Thus, Malaysians must come together to achieve undisputable harmony and democracy.

References

Adam, M. (28 December, 2018). Malaysian men beaten up and dragged out of car for ‘having gay sex’. Retrieved 10 January, 2019, from Pink News: https://www.pinknews.co.uk/2018/12/27/malaysian-men-beaten-up-gay-sex/

Cohen, C. J. (10 July, 2018). Millennials Support LGBT Rights But Take Issue With ‘Homosexuality’. Retrieved 11 January, 2019, from Advocate: https://www.advocate.com/commentary/2018/7/10/millennials-support-lgbt-rights-take-issue-homosexuality

DiSabito, A. (4 March, 2014). Millennials are making the world a better place. Retrieved 10 January, 2019, from Daily Collegian: https://dailycollegian.com/2014/03/millennials-are-making-the-world-a-better-place/

Felicetti, R. (15 April, 2015). Millennials: More Accepting of Homosexuality? Retrieved 10 January, 2019, from The Outlook: https://outlook.monmouth.edu/news/30-volume-86-fall-2014-spring-2015/2578-millennials-more-accepting-of-homosexuality

Lamb, K. (2018, September 3). Women caned in Malaysia for attempting to have lesbian sex. Retrieved from TheGuardian: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/sep/03/women-caned-in-malaysia-for-attempting-to-have-lesbian-sex

Logeiswary, T., & Sekaran, R. (16 June, 2017). Teen bully victim Nhaveen dies. Retrieved 11 January, 2019, from The Star: https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2017/06/16/teen-bully-victim-nhaveen-dies-family-and-friends-fill-hospital-grounds-grieving-and-fuming-over-boy/

Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, Social Stress, and Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual. American Psychological Association, 674-692.

Pillai, V. (21 September, 2018). No way we’ll recognise gay rights in Malaysia, says Dr M. Retrieved 20 December, 2018, from freemalaysiatoday.com: https://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/nation/2018/09/21/no-way-well-recognise-gay-rights-in-malaysia-says-dr-m/

Thiagarajan, T. (2017, June 13). Teenager from Penang Beaten and Sodomised for Being ‘Effeminate’ Now Brain-dead. Retrieved from World of Buzz: https://www.worldofbuzz.com/teenager-penang-beaten-sodomised-effeminate-now-brain-dead/

Zing, T. (10 March, 2016). Teens These Days Are Queer AF, New Study Says. Retrieved 8 January, 2019, from Broadly: https://broadly.vice.com/en_us/article/kb4dvz/teens-these-days-are-queer-af-new-study-says


LET’S GO THRIFTING!

by Nasuha Yahaya

Do you thrift? Who amongst you loves thrift shopping? If you do, you’re not alone. Thrift shopping started to be a new trend which helps us to save more money not only for clothing, but also for our daily items such as furniture, electronic item and many more. Living on a budget is not as frightful as one thought. When it’s done right, it helps us to save more money while looking dashing at the same time.

Thrift shops are not as awful as you thought. You will never know what kind of treasure you might find while thrift shopping. Just like a treasure hunt! Before this, a few people in this world gain an advantage as they go thrift shopping where there was an incident where a man bought a bundle of thrift cloth with a lot of money inside it.

Based on my own experience, I always discover a lot of limited edition products with a reasonable price. For example, when I am studying in Kelantan way back before, I always go for thrift shopping and one day I found one of Vans X The Beatles Yellow Submarine which had been released back in 1986. Yellow Submarine was based on the iconic song written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney. This shoe had been released on time to celebrate the 50th anniversary of The Beatles’ ground breaking first appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show. The dealer gave me a reasonable price for a good condition shoes even though it is a really rare collection.

Source from https://www.vans.com/article_detail/beatles.html

Besides that, if you want to find a good quality and original branded clothing such as Uniqlo, Zara, Topman, Champion and many more brands with a cheap price, you can go to Jalan Raja Bot, Kuala Lumpur. There’s one place that you can easily find a branded stuff as low as RM 1 per item. From my own experience, I can easily get a cute skirt from the branded brand that cost me RM 1 only. Besides that, the thrift shop itself brings so many branded clothing lines from Korea and Japan.

Jalan Raja Bot

By purchasing a new look from any clothing store, you will probably run into other people who will wear the same outfits as you. But when you are doing the thrift shop, you also can develop a unique wardrobe, where the thrift shops have a much more diverse assortment of clothing. This means you’re less likely to find yourself wearing the same top or sweater as other people. Besides that, you can expect to see completely different products at your local thrift store for one week to the next.

You may not like every item or cloth in that thrift shop but by thrift shopping, you can at least have fun looking at ostentatious, retro, or just plain bizarre merchandise in that local thrift shop.

EFFECT OF VIOLENT CONTENTS ON CHILDREN’S BEHAVIOUR

by Nurul Fathnie Rustam

Media plays the biggest role in our daily lives be it broadcasting, print or the new media, bring both negative and positive effect especially on children’s behaviour. Everything that children see or hear in the media early on in their lives affects them in certain ways.  Positive parenting role models indicate that in the best interest of our children, we should limit their exposure to violent acts. However, violence is one of the most popular forms of entertainment and you can get violence genre movies or video games easily. This is what the young generation is getting themselves involved with and most parents are not paying attention in this matter as for them, when their child is happy watching anything on the screen, it would be okay. Recently, with the help of internet and the technologies, people nowadays especially young kids can access to any forms of violence content easily.

It is being said that the exposure to media violence increases the risk of aggressive behaviour on certain children desensitizes them to more violent and it makes them believe that the world they are living now is meaner and scarier place to live in. When children consume too much of violent content, it will stuck in their head and they will tend to do any violent act just like what they have seen in the media. Study shows that, performing violent acts in video games are contributing more on children’s aggression than passively watching violent acts on television. This is because in video games, women are usually portrayed as the victim and the male character can do any violent and abusive acts on the female character. Just like what the famous game such as Grand Theft Auto is portraying. It promotes prostitution, theft and violent behaviour. Thus, if the children are overly consumed of violent act like this, this will contribute to any form violent acts in reality.

Children will misbehave and it is pretty normal for a child to have occasional outburst. However, repeated disruptive behaviors may signal a behavioral problem. This behavior may include repeated arguments, tantrums, hostility toward parents or authority figures and bullying behavior such as picking on small or younger children. It also includes causing or threatening harm to pets, other people or even themselves. In older children and teens, early sexual activity, smoking, alcohol and drug use can be signs of a problem. Skipping school and lying may also indicate a behavioral problem. According to Medline Plus, if a child or teen has a pattern of hostility, aggression or disruptive behaviors lasting six months or longer, the child may have a behavior disorder. Imagine having our children spending most of their times playing violence video games, watching 18sg or 18sx rated series, surfing violence stuffs on the internet without. What is worst? When we as parents do not even have ample time to spend our precious time together with our children until we do not have the idea with what are the things that our children have been up too behind our backs.

            Hence, in conclusion, as an adult be it as parents or even older siblings in the family, we should play the biggest role to keep on tracking what are the current obsession of our children or young siblings. We should know what are the games that they are playing, what kind of website they surf, who are their peers or stuff like that. It is not like we want to be overly protective, we just need to control their activities especially if it is involving any violence content. We know how kids can grasps anything that they see and listen quickly and precisely, hence we should be careful with that. Showing them violence acts via the media or video games, will only make it worst.