By Faranaz Fatini Binti Zaharan

Instinctual behaviour which exists in all business organizations has created a grapevine communication effect which is known to be the agent of spreading unwanted rumours in the form of a mix of truth and untruth information. According to Fine and Ellis (2013), rumours are defined as the expression of belief towards a certain event that is about to happen and has happened. It does somewhat evoke impactful means towards business organization in either a positive or negative way.

The issue regarding the White Rabbit candy halal speculation that went viral in the early 2019 had caught the attention of the public in Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei after the Americans introduced a White Rabbit candy flavoured ice-cream (May, 2019). In the Malaysian perspective, the issue was being discussed in respect to the halal status of this candy flavoured ice-cream as its candy product (i.e. White Rabbit candy) was also known to be one of Malaysian favourite childhood candies (Jayne, 2019). 

The issue of the said discussion stemmed from the Malaysian public’s concern and doubt of the validity of the halal certification of the White Rabbit candy product. The government of Malaysia has also launched an investigation on this issue of concern after the Brunei’s Ministry of Religious Affairs (MoRA) has confirmed that the White Rabbit candy contains unwanted substance that are known to be haram (Astro Gempak, 2019). Originally, this candy was from Shanghai, China is known to be an iconic or essential sweet brand in China and also some other overseas countries, nearly eight decades since the year 1940s (Roxburgh, 2018). It was known to the general public consuming the sweets as the “Mickey Mouse sweets” as, apparently, on its wrappers an iconic Disney character was being displayed (Jayne, 2019).

The deputy minister in the Prime Minister’s Department, Fuiziah Salleh has released a statement in TV Al Hijrah announcing that the White Rabbit candy is certified as Haram (Nazari, 2019). The ministry has officially confirmed that the product contains both pork and cow protein through the investigation conducted by the Department of Islamic Development Malaysia (JAKIM) (Liew, 2019). The result of the investigation has brought sadness to not only the Muslim communities of Malaysia but also the Muslim communities of Brunei and Singapore as it has brought nostalgic memories of the candy itself. In an Instagram post posted by Rumah Gelato Frozen Treats (n.d.), the post has displayed grief in which it illustrated a White Rabbit wagon with parting goodbyes captions depicting the company has joined the bandwagon of the American White Rabbit flavoured ice cream of not selling its White Rabbit gelato ice cream product due to the negative viral issue concerning the American White Rabbit flavoured ice cream. Furthermore, similar post also made by Project Ice Cream (n.d.) through the medium of Instagram with a caption of immediate action to discontinue the White Rabbit ice cream production. This could provide the evidence on how food companies, especially the ice cream companies, had taken action in pulling the flavour of the White Rabbit in the market as a respect and acknowledgement to the sensitivities of the Muslims communities.

It could be seen that, the Muslim communities in Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei had used the platform of social media to sustain a regular and consistent flow of communication to the general public regarding the controversial issue of the halal status. This also connotes that the public and the countries’ respective Islamic organizations or authorities have shown interest in taking serious actions regarding this issue. The issue has brought the people together in knowing the brand better whilst at the same time taking precaution by carrying out research on product ingredients or contents prior to consumption (i.e. on any other similar products being introduced to the market). It has also brought the awareness that not all candies are certified halal and a research of ingredient content is needed to be made.

Image source: (Astro Gempak, 2019)


Astro Gempak. (2019, September 13). Sah! Tidak halal, gula-gula White Rabbit ada gelatin babi. Astro Awani. Retrieved from http://www.astroawani.com/gaya-hidup/sah-tidak-halal-gula-gula-white-rabbit-ada-gelatin-babi-217431

Fine, G. A., & Ellis, B. (2013). The global grapevine: Why rumors of terrorism, immigration, and trade matter. Oxford University Press.

Jayne, T. (2019, February 27). The iconic White Rabbit candy was once taken off the shelf. Here’s why. SAYS. Retrieved from https://says.com/my/lifestyle/the-iconic-white-rabbit-candy-was-once-taken-off-the-shelf-here-s-why

Liew, E. (2019, September 12). White Rabbit Candy Officially NOT Halal, Contains Pig & Cow DNA. World of Buzz. Retrieved from https://www.worldofbuzz.com/white-rabbit-candy-officially-not-halal-contains-pig-cow-dna/

May, A. (2019). After lab test, White Rabbit candy found to be non-halal.Retrieved from https://hype.my/2019/167808/after-lab-test-white-rabbit-candy-found-to-be-non-halal/

Nazari, T. (2019, September 12). White Rabbit candy IS NOT halal; contains pig and cow DNA. The Rakyat Post. Retrieved from https://www.therakyatpost.com/2019/09/12/white-rabbit-candy-is-not-halal-contains-pig-and-cow-dna/?fbclid=IwAR0Z4hS_qEHpRxLKTeRAkaznetA-q0aHpBlJPuZRcXdB_t6-5XMp1wmf8gY

Project Ice Cream [@projecticecream.bn]. (n.d.). Posts [Instagram profile]. Retrieved May 12, 2019, from https://instagram.com/projecticecream.bn?igshid+1cnyq2ja5yfqn

Roxburgh, H. (2018, April 30). How China’s iconic White Rabbit sweets went from a Shanghai favourite to being known the world over. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/regional/2018/05/01/how-chinas-iconic-white-rabbit-sweets-went-from-a-shanghai-favourite-to-being-known-the-world-over RumahGelato Frozen Treats [@rumahgelato]. (n.d.). Posts [Instagram profile]. Retrieved May 17, 2019, from http://instagram.com/rumahgelato?igshid+atqfrs243jvo


By Syahnaz binti Khariul Anwar

The General Debate of the 74th session of the United Nation’s General Assembly (UNGA) was held in New York from 24 th to 30 th September 2019 (‘UN General Assembly’, 2019). One of the world leaders that took part in delivering the country’s statement was Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad, Prime Minister of Malaysia. It has been his second time standing before the international eyes since his return to the political arena in 2018, and his speech continued from where he left in the previous UNGA’s session. Overall, his speech during the 74th UNGA session touched on the economy, social and political spheres which comprised of Veto Power, Israel – The Origin of Terrorism, Climate Change and Catastrophise, Trade, Sanctions and Capitalism, and the way for United Nation to move forward (“Speech text”, 2019).

In his previous speech during the 73rd UNGA session, he began with the New Malaysia empowerment of democracy that embodies the spirit of the year’s theme of “Making the United Nations Relevant to All People: Global Leadership and Shared Responsibilities for Peaceful, Equitable and Sustainable Societies”.  He continued with the trade war between powerful countries, new social values that erode nations’ stability and terrorism within the political sphere, specifically mentioning of the sufferings of the Palestine and Rakhine people. He touched briefly on environmentally sustainable development by mentioning on the national’s oil palm sustainable production before ending with a high note on calling the reformation of the veto power within the UN organization (“Speech text” 2018).

This year, the theme of the General Assembly is “Galvanizing multilateral efforts for poverty eradication, quality education, climate action and inclusion”, and Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad wasted no time in calling once again for the reformation of the veto power which is seen as a treat to the human right’s principle as well as an erosion to the global democracy. Again, he condemned the occupancy of the Israelis on the Palestine’s land due to the unlawfulness as well as the devious engineering hatred towards Muslim and Islam of terrorism globally. Citing again the Rakhine’s massacre in Myanmar, the invasion and occupancy of Jammu and Kashmir. He spoke of the climate change and trade, sanctions and capitalism. Although the UN has contributed fairly to the health, education and social security improvement, Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad believes that the UN should play a much more active role in re-establishing failed governments. Again, as his previous speech, he urged for UN to move forward by reinstating of the original purpose of the UN (New Straits Times, September 28,2019).

Drawing similarities between both speeches, Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad had focused on the importance of strengthening democracy and democratizing the international system (Tharoor, 2018). As the year before, his speech during the 74th UNGA once again drew the international attention on the various issues brought up, from the sharp criticism of the UN failures in preventing wars ((‘UN General Assembly’, 2019).; ‘Malaysian PM’, 2019) to the on-going conflict in Jammu and Kashmir (‘Malaysain PM says”, 2019; ‘Malaysian PM raises”, 2019; ‘Malaysian UN Speech’ 2019). However, these criticisms did not go without any backlash from the global public. The silence on the mistreatment of the Uyghurs in China is seen as a move of not wanting to upset China, Malaysia’s biggest trading partner (‘Silence on Urghur’, 2019) with exports worth RM13.3 billion (DoSM, 2019). Unlike Israel and Myanmar whom Malaysia has no direct trading ties with the former and bilateral trade volume of only RM4.4 billion in 2018 with the later, Dr Mahathir has no reservation in using strong words against the occupation of Palestine and the genocide of the Rohingya people. Interestingly, Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad did not seem to mind in upsetting India, one of Malaysia’s biggest oil palm exporters by raising the conflict issue in Jammu and Kashmir. Having to defend himself following the trending #BoycottMalaysia backlash among the Indians, Dr Mahathir said it was in line with Malaysia’s policy of resolving conflicts with non-violence approach.

Being Asia’s most senior statesman, Mahathir’s wisdom and knowledge are sought by world leaders. Yet, despite Dr Mahathir’s fiery speech on championing human rights at the global stage, much is left to ponder of the UN human rights instruments that are yet to be ratified by Malaysia, having only ratified 3 out of 9 core international human rights treaties (OHCHR, 2019). Little was touched on the theme’s quality education, whereas climate action was touched on the surface, in contrast with the promotion of Malaysia’s oil palm industry – an industry that is increasingly shunned by Western countries due to its environmental damage of deforestation. Maybe it’s time for Malaysia to place greater prioritization on the country’s own national policies in responding to globalization challenges, and followed by offering a new fresh insight to the world in achieving a better and more sustainable future for all.


Aljazeera. (2019, October 1). UN General Assembly 2019: All the latest updates. Aljazeera. Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/09/hold-general-assembly-2019-latest-updates-190916224113531.html

DoSM. (2019). Malaysia External Trade Statistics July 2019. Department of Statistics Malaysia. Retrieved from https://www.dosm.gov.my/v1/index.php?r=column/cthemeByCat&cat=139&bul_id=cU1NaUVUMGpnWkhHeXFWU3pxWDBuQT09&menu_id=azJjRWpYL0VBYU90TVhpclByWjdMQT09                                                                 

Economic Times. (2019, October 1). Malaysian PM says India ‘invaded, occupied’ Kashmir at UNGA. Economic Times. Retrieved from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/international/world-news/malaysian-pm-says-india-invaded-occupied-kashmir-at-unga/articleshow/71362388.cms?from=mdr

Malay Mail. (2019, July 29). Booming opportunities await Malaysian investors in Myanmar. Malay Mail. Retrieved from https://www.malaymail.com/news/money/2019/07/29/booming-opportunities-await-malaysian-investors-in-myanmar/1775796

Malaysiakini. (2019, September 28). Silence on Uyghurs because China is powerful- Mahathir. Malaysiakini. Retrievedfrom https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/493663

New Straits Times. (2018, September 29). [Speech Text] Dr Mahathir at 73rd UN General Assembly. New Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2018/09/415941/speech-text-dr-mahathir-73rd-un-general-assembly

New Straits Times. (2019, September 28). Dr M’s full speech text at the 74th UNGA. New Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2019/09/525269/dr-ms-full-speech-text-74th-unga

OHCHR. (2019). Ratification Status for Malaysia. Office of the High Commissioner. United Nations Human Rights. Retrieved from https:// https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/TreatyBodyExternal/Treaty.aspx?CountryID=105&Lang=EN

South China Morning Post. (2018, September 28). Malaysia PM Mahathir Mohamad laments world’s ‘pain’ in first speech to UN in 15 years. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from https://www.scmp.com/news/asia/diplomacy/article/2166286/malaysia-pm-mahathir-mohamad-laments-worlds-pain-first-speech-un

Tharoor, I. (2018, September 28). The World According to Asia’s Most Senior Statesman. Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2018/09/28/worlds-most-senior-statesman-returns-center-stage/

The Asian Age. (2019, September 30). Malaysian PM raises Kashmir at UN General Assembly, alleges India ‘invaded, occupied’ it. The Asian Age. Retrieved from https://www.asianage.com/world/americas/300919/malaysian-pm-raises-kashmir-at-un-general-assembly-alleges-india-invaded-occupied-it.html

Times of India. (2019, September 29). Malaysian PM: UN has failed to prevent wars. Times of India. Retrieved from https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/rest-of-world/malaysia-pm-un-has-failed-to-prevent-wars/articleshow/71349313.cms

Yahoo! News. (2019, October 1). Mahathir’s UN Speech on Jammu and Kashmir causes #BoycottMalaysia Twitter trend. Yahoo! News. Retrieved from https://malaysia.news.yahoo.com/mahathir-un-speech-jammu-kashmir-101507515.html?guccounter=1&guce_referrer=aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuZ29vZ2xlLmNvbS8&guce_referrer_sig=AQAAAKU08wiHksBdJZ9z5rurLqfT0OeRnl-vHJ0ip4AqUt2Fy4Yws4ECPcWoGLDIG7bTDZv55EatVNyJY2DA5jiCE30pSh7IhGPVFhHThpA2sjDuM77s6koI5- rgeVRmb8jk8XOb1VeysOuFEv71Cyyo_ASQ7UuWI2YOxNkwrtT0s9q_

Future banks in Malaysia

by Muhammad Hasif Bin Che Kar

Age can be just a number for some, but for this research the age gap different could mean everything. As generations grow, we can see baby boomers that are born between 1946 to 1964, which post-cold war era, very optimistic about the future. During this time, they have a good economic opportunity, ­ (Wj Schoroer, 2004). While the millennials or gen Y were born between 1974-1994, this two-age gap has different timeline over the years. In terms of technology, these two generation has different ways of accepting and use technology.

The millennials are ‘media-conscious’ of everything that’s happening in the world, in their tip of their fingers. Moreover, there are known as digital natives. Facetime and social media play vital role in their communicating channel.  While generations before that have the traditional media ritual, whereby newspaper reports play bigger role than reporting. For generations before the millennials, newspaper act as not only reporting but also news validating. The senior generations find it difficult to accept changes that have been made rapidly, (Dlodlo & Mafini, 2013).

For generation X, they are no specific years on what year they were born, but they are also known as digital immigrants. They form of communications are personal computers, and SMS and email play significant role in their life (Linnes & Metcalf, 2017). They are the generations after baby boomers and exposed to technology early in their life. They have exposed to technology whether by their workplace or devices.

In contrast these generation have evolved, from normal phone to smart phones, to social media. next, we are looking at sectors that also involved heavily with technology nowadays, and what has it compare to generations before.

Bank is financial institution that provide service such as safeguard money, accepting deposits, and provide loans. These types of service are few objectives why the bank is important. Together with the evolution of time and technology, banking sector has also evolved to provide facilities, payments service and insurance, (Shod & Ganga, 2016). Throughout the years, banking has been segmented to commercial banking, investment banking and housing finance. These separations were maintained by various forms of official regulation such as exchange control and lending constraints, (Bowen, Hoggarth, & Pain, 2016).

The increasing tempo of economic activity lead to tremendous increase in volume and complexity of banking activity. Banks have now come out to fulfill national responsibilities through catering to the needs of agricultures, industrialist, traders and all to all other section of the society. Transferring money to overseas, or payments to international account have to go through banking activity which expand the role of banking for more than just daily banking activity, (Kwak, Lee, Park, & Moon, 2010).

The year of 2000 see the new dawn of banking sector. Fintech or financial Technology has been created and slowly taken over the use of manual banking to online banking. Companies such as Ali Baba and Tencent has grown to ease the china market banking transaction. Many of the develop countries and developing countries has offer similar platform in financial sectors, these countries are embracing FinTech waves as they come in plain sight (Bowen, Hoggarth, & Pain, 2016).


Bowen, A., Hoggarth, G., & Pain, D. (2016). The recent evolution of the UK banking industry and some implications for financial stability. business and banking faculty, 22-45.


Dlodlo, N., & Mafini, C. (2013). The relationship between technology acceptance and frequecy or mobile commerce use amongst Generation Y consumers. Acta commercii 13(1), 8 pages.


Linnes, C., & Metcalf, B. (2017). iGeneration and their acceptance of technology. International Journal of management and information system, Volume 21, Number 2.

Shod, & Ganga. (2016). Introduction of Indian Banking System. Shod and gangga journal banking sector, 1-3.

Wj Schoroer. (2004, february 4). social marketing. Retrieved from Generations X,Y,Z and the others: http://socialmarketing.org/archives/generations-xy-z-and-the-others/


by Zaliha binti Idris

The cyber risk landscape is growing rapidly in many fields. The government faces an unprecedented level of cyber-attacks and threats with the potential to undermine national security and critical infrastructure, while businesses that store customer information and confidential client’s online struggle to maintain their reputation amid massive data violations.

The potential economic impact of cyber threats cannot be underestimated. Economic have been warned of digital disintegration (The Global Risks 2014 report, 2014). A scenario in which cyberspace can be truly undermined because it strengthens attacks where the internet is no longer a trusted medium for communication or trade, at a high cost to the economy and society.

Cyber-attacks are now happening all over the world at an increasingly fast pace. Recently, the Office of Personnel Management in United States of America announced that hackers stole social security numbers and other sensitive information for more than 21 million people. Sony Pictures has a company and hacked personal email and also salary information for vice presidents and executives. Stuxnet is a US and Israeli computer virus that has been rumoured to attack centrifuges that are used to control machines that are important for the manufacture of nuclear weapons. As more companies and governments rely on the internet, this makes them vulnerable to malicious cyber-attacks from groups of hackers and countries that use hackers to infiltrate countries with sensitive computer systems (Mike & Jack, 2015).

There is a very urgent need for cyber security professionals to fill the many white-collar loopholes that have sprung up when companies struggle to protect their programs from outside attacks. Recent casualties include well-known brands such as eBay, Target, Neiman Marcus, Michaels Stores, NATO, JPMorgan Chase, Adobe, Social life and the list continues.

For our country, the government is seriously considering the threat of cyber-attacks in line with the rapid development of information and communications technology in the country. The reliance on the use of information technology for socio-economic development could pose a threat and cyber-attacks if not protected. Based on statistics produced by Malaysia Computer Emergency Response Team (MyCERT), 7,962 cyber threats were reported over the last year. Malaysia was no exception to the threat of cyber-attacks and the country ranked third among 193 countries in the world in terms of commitment to cyber security based on the Global Cyber ​​Security Index (GCI) 2017. This is because of today’s industrial development is based on the digital economy and the challenges to tackle this threat are increasingly difficult.

Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation claimed that they will help to develop research and development of cyber security incubation to remain competitive. Cyber ​​Security is information technology security, focusing on the protection of computers, networks, programs and data from unwanted or illegal access, change or destruction. Cyber ​​security affects us all when we are online, using a mobile device or tablet, or using cloud-based services. We all interact with various tools designed to protect your personal information, similar to the tools used to protect our country’s infrastructure. It’s important for everyone to understand cyber security and our role in being safe while staying connected to minimize the possibility of incidents (CHIPS Magazine, 2014).

Cyber ​​Security can be defined as activities or processes, capabilities or capabilities, or countries where information and communication systems and information contained in them are protected from or defended against unauthorized damage, use or modification, or exploitation. Cyber ​​Security focuses on protecting computers, mobile devices, tablets, networks, programs, and data from unauthorized access or manipulation. Understanding cyber security is the first step to protecting yourself, your family and your organization (Melike, Ali, Ihsan, Aysenur, & Murat, 2019).

Cyber ​​threats are real a danger and the government should be worried on this issue. The economy, financial, and national security can be breached by the cyber-attacks. For example, we discussed on Malaysia’s scenario in economics. The study reveals that the potential economic loss in Malaysia due to cyber security incidents can hit a staggering US$12.2 billion (RM 49.6 billion). This is more than 4 per cent of Malaysia’s total GDP of US$296 billion (RM1.2 trillion) (based on studies by Microsoft in collaboration with Frost & Sullivan). The study revealed that a large-sized organization in Malaysia can possibly incur an economic loss of US$22.8 million (RM92.6 million), more than 630 times higher than the average economic loss for a mid-sized organization (US$36,000) and the cyber security attacks have resulted in job losses across different functions in three in five (61%) of organizations that have experienced an incident over the last 12 months (Sugriiva, 2018).

To calculate the cost of cybercrime, Frost & Sullivan (2018) has created an economic loss model based on macro-economic data and insights shared by the survey respondents. This model factors in three kinds of losses which could be incurred due to a cyber-security breach. There are direct, indirect and induced. Firstly, direct is a financial losses associated with a cyber-security incident which included loss of productivity, fines, remediation cost, etc. Second, indirect is the opportunity cost to the organization such as customer churn due to reputation loss and lastly, induced in which that was the impact of cyber breach to the broader ecosystem and economy, such as the decrease in consumer and enterprise spending. There are many other hidden losses that we have to consider from both the indirect and induced perspectives, and the economic loss for organizations suffering from cyber security attacks can be often underestimated. In addition to financial losses, cyber security incidents are also undermining Malaysia organizations’ ability to capture future opportunities in today’s digital economy, with more than three in five (62%) respondents stating that their enterprise has put off digital transformation efforts due to the fear of cyber-risks based on the studies by Frost and Sullivan (Sugriiva, 2018).

Although high-profile cyber-attacks, such as ransom ware, have been garnering a lot of attention from enterprises, the study found that for organizations in Malaysia that have encountered cyber security incidents, data exfiltration and data corruption are the biggest concerns as they have the highest impact with the slowest recovery time (Sugriiva, 2018).

In a world where cyber threats are a constant danger, companies find themselves in a continuing battle to keep their data safe. A large amount of risk now exists because cyber criminals are constantly looking for new ways to break our boundaries and get our vital information. However, did you know that 99.9% of exploitation is possible because the organization does not handle basic security cleanliness? The fact is that many industries focus on the wrong things, often using basically defective security strategies and ultimately not providing the right protection that they need (Andy, 2016-2017).


Andy, G. (2016-2017). Breaking Into Information Security: Learning The Ropes 101. Retrieved March 26, 2019, from Leanpub: https://kyhwana.keybase.pub/books/breaking%20into%20infosec%20.pdf

CHIPS Magazine. (2014, October 16). Cybersecurity or Convenience? Retrieved mARCH 26, 2019, from CHIPS: https://www.doncio.navy.mil/CHIPS/ArticleDetails.aspx?ID=5594

Melike, E., Ali, K., Ihsan, K., Aysenur, B., & Murat, C. (2019). A Fuzzy Based MCDM Methodology for Risk Evaluation of Cyber Security Technologies. International Conference on Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems (INFUS 2019: Intelligent and Fuzzy Techniques in Big Data Analytics and Decision Making) (pp. 1042 – 1049). Switzerland: Springer, Cham.

Mike, L., & Jack, D. (2015, July 9). 22 Million Affected by OPM Hack, Official Say. Retrieved March 25, 2019, from abc News: https://abcnews.go.com/US/exclusive-25-million-affected-opm-hack-sources/story?id=32332731

Sugriiva, P. (2018, July 12). Cybersecurity threats to cost organizations in Malaysia US$12.2 billion in economic losses. Retrieved March 26, 2019, from Microsoft Malaysia News Center: https://news.microsoft.com/en-my/2018/07/12/cybersecurity-threats-to-cost-organizations-in-malaysia-us12-2-billion-in-economic-losses/

The Global Risks 2014 report. (2014). Part 2: Risks in Focus:2.4 Digital Disintegration. Retrieved March 25, 2019, from World Economic Forum: http://reports.weforum.org/global-risks-2014/part-2-risks-in-focus/2-4-digital-disintegration/?doing_wp_cron=1564101657.5671370029449462890625

Globalization Impact in The Developing World

Written by Nor Diyana Abd Kadir

Image Credit: english.almanar.com

Over the past 60 years, we have seen a cultural shift in developing societies around the world primarily through the rapid usage of technology in their daily lives. The exchange of information upon this varied wide network of telephones and computers has made it easier for people to communicate, transact which undoubtedly enhance their productivity.

The impact on third world nations, like many countries in Asia is very much profound since they are still growing in population. Their mindset is grounded to the believe of communal (we) as opposed to western culture (I) that focuses on individualism. Here, large corporations face little competition and resistance due to market forces.

The US has played a crucial role in the development of these nations through their influential presence in the media and telecommunications as well as other aspects of the socioeconomic realm like finance and transportation. It has somewhat adopted the first world cultural style gradually moving away from the traditional norms. These markets are not saturated hence providing more opportunity for business to expand. In time, the force of globalization shifts power away from sovereign governments to already wealthy private capitals.

Although many were bought into the idea of free market as a saviour to their disparity, undoubtedly many of those ideas did bring in wealth to its people. Some proponents might suggest that western influence whether it is in terms of technology or businesses has brought them out from the brink of hardship. For example, capital influx from overseas investment such as giant telecommunications companies have provided the choice of connectivity to the millions of people of India and South East Asia that was never experienced before.

The spill-over effect is increasing in welfare amongst the underprivileged which can now earn a better living from jobs offered in both skilled and unskilled sectors. This technological advancement means that more and more people can benefit from a wide range of businesses that support the industry. With an increase in the standard of living, people have the opportunity to get access to better education, medical facilities, food, shelter and additional services such as entertainment and transportation.

In contrary, one of the destructive effects of western influence would be that a nation would lose its sovereignty and its culture with the implementation of globalization and free market forces. For example, change of policy has made some countries borrow money from International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank with outlandish clauses which further control power and wealth to the already rich. This form of dominance and control creates a dependency to these corporations that put its people into further enslavement.

In conclusion, globalization has brought forth positive and negative influence to the developing nations. The government needs to be cautious on the changes that they are trying to bring into their country. Not all changes promise the prosperity to a nation’s development. Decisions by the policy makers may unknowingly confiscate its people of their rights and privileges, worsening the already deprived situation further into depths of social calamity.


  • Mohammadi, A. (1997).  International Communication and Globalization: A Critical Introduction. London, Thousand Oaks & New Delhi : SAGE Publications.