disorder is among most common mental health condition which effect one’s life.
The major classes of anxiety disorders are panic disorder, social anxiety
disorder, genera anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and
obsessive-compulsive disorder. Anxiety also can be defined as a feeling of
tension, nervousness, apprehension, worry and phobia over things that are
unnecessary. It is important to manage anxiety disorder as it can be associated
with negative effect and lower down the quality of someone’s life. According to
The Global Burden of Disease study that was conducted in 2010 (GBD, 2010) there
are 28.6 million of disability that contributed to anxiety disorder.
disorder may be caused by stress from personal relationships, financial
problem, working situations, peer pressure. Apart from that, there are also
other factors such as genetics as well as medical factors that can contribute
to anxiety. However, it can only be diagnosed by medical check-ups.
there are a lot of pharmaceutical methods being practised such as aromatherapy,
massage therapy, relaxation techniques and music therapy to reduce anxiety. The
music therapy is the oldest way of therapeutic approach being used in ancient
Egypt, Greece, China, India and Rome. Studies indicate that religious music may
also have a positive effect on mental health (Bradshaw, 2015). The Holy Quran
recitation is a form of mystical music that can release endorphin by
stimulating alpha brain waves (Almerud, 2003).
Holy Quran is very important as guidance of Muslims as it is always associated
with religiosity and spirituality. The language is basically in Arabic. The Holy
Quran recitation can be classified as natural music with calmness sounds which
can reduce the stimulation of the brain and comfort a person’s state of
mind. It means that, the Holy Quran
recitation is useful in various places such as hospitals where it can help to give
relaxion sensation to anxiety patient or any stressful working environment. With
the softest and lightest music in nature being recited by expertise, it can
sooth someone’s mind, and ease tense to improve brain’s health.
soothing effects of the Quran can increase levels of dopamine when it is being
played to an anxiety patient. The sporadic nature of a person’s mood can be
greatly influenced by taking other external stimuli into consideration. The Holy
Quran can be used as an optional method to give a relaxation sensation to
anxiety patients. Therefore, it has the highest effect to healthcare
intervention and not only people who suffer with anxiety can listen to the
recitation of the Holy Quran, it also can be used during any tense situation. However,
there is a lack of research and evidence that indicates listening to the Holy
Quran is useful to treat anxiety patients.
Bandelow B, Michaelis
S. Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21st century. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2015;17:327–35.
Malecki-Ketchell A, Astin F. Non-pharmacological interventions to reduce
psychological distress in patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac
catheterization: A rapid review. Eur J Cardiovasc
Bradshaw M, Ellison CG,
Fang Q, Mueller C. Listening to religious music and mental health in later
life. Gerontologist. 2014;55:961–71
Almerud S, Petersson K.
Music therapy–a complementary treatment for mechanically ventilated intensive
care patients. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2003;19:21–30
Propaganda; which has been
used for ages started way back during the World War 1 and continuously being
used until today. Propaganda is a type of communication in which its goal is to
manipulate and influence the opinion of people to support some movement, organisation,
government, cause or belief and it is likely be used in artwork, films,
speeches and music (White,
Dr Zollman said that “What
we refer to as modern day propaganda was actually invented at the start of the
20th century and actually, it relates more to business practices, to
advertising, public relations and so on”. He added said that we need to look
back throughout the history, the terminology of propaganda and how it has
changed (Modern Day
In today’s modern propaganda,
all of it has been changed to a digital visuals such as digital posters like
memes, video games and it has been spreading widely in social media, websites,
and chat rooms internationally without being controlled by anyone (Hasic, 2019).
Take for example the
propaganda done by the United States (U.S) in a game called “Call of Duty:
Modern Warfare” where they portrayed Russia as the evil villain whom kills the
people there, which is now called as Highway of Death between Kuwait and Iraq.
“The Russians bombed it during the invasion, killing the people trying to
escape. He’s the man responsible for creating the Highway of Death, and for
using forced labor torture, summary executions and chemical weapons to punish
people in the region”, (Hall, 2019). The truth is that
the one who did all the invasion was none other than the Great Father which is
the U.S. The game also portrayed a scene
where a player who plays a role as a CIA officer shoots the enemies as well as
The game tried to portray
Russia as a bad country internationally whereby all that they are good in doing
is destroying and killing. The propaganda done can shift people’s view on Russia
which is not good for their economy. Besides that, the games will subconsciously
make other players from other countries to see Russia as a really bad country
as most of the players are students. The games have been played by millions of
people worldwide and it has sparked negative comments towards the Infinity Ward
(the developer). Most of the Russian consumers who played the game commented
that the game portrays their soldiers as a little more than faceless henchmen (Hall, 2019). Days after the
release of Call of Duty : Modern Warfare, Russian consumers expressed their
anger towards the game and created user reviews on Metacritic which led to a
2.5/10 score for the game.
In the modern day, people
tend to look for information by using the internet medium which is the social
media mainly through Twitter, Facebook and other news website such as BBC, Al
Jazeera, The Washington Post and others. The problem with today’s information
centre is that they are spreading the propaganda drastically and they called it
as freedom of speech or freedom of expression. Instead of approving the Article
13, the government might as well create a law restricting a certain limit for
the propaganda to be shared because sometimes the propaganda that is being
shared contains more negative impact instead of positive impact towards a
nation and also the people.
Hall, C. (2019, October 30). Call
of Duty: Modern Warfare’s Highway of Death controversy, explained.
Retrieved from Polygon: https://www.polygon.com/2019/10/30/20938550/call-of-duty-modern-warfare-highway-of-death-controversy
Hasic, A. (2019, March 12). Why
propaganda is more dangerous in the digital age. Retrieved from The
Washington Post: https://www.washingtonpost.com/outlook/2019/03/12/why-propaganda-is-more-dangerous-digital-age/
Modern Day Propaganda. (n.d.). Retrieved from Renegade:
White, D. (n.d.). What is
Propaganda? – Definition, Techniques, Types & Examples. Retrieved from
metal music in Malaysia has been one of the genres that create a phenomenon in
terms of the mistakenly accused ideology and the way the music itself is being delivered.
In order to be specific to the situation, the group of under metal scene in
Malaysia is being focused on. The focus group is the underground metal
scene. As the element of the underground
metal scene itself is divided into sub-genre such as death metal, black metal,
thrash metal, doom metal and many others, the acceptance of the underground
metal music in Malaysia is still not well received.
metal in Malaysia has been labelled as ‘anti-Islamic’ after it has been a sensational
of the issues amongst public. The escalation of the panic situation began after
the media in Malaysia reported stories regarding religious desecration by the black
metal follower (Liew & Fu, 2006). The situation
was getting worse when authorities failed to determine categories of the metal
music. During the crisis, all kind of music that involved growl vocal, loud
music and skull logo was accused as black metal. As the media continues to
promote hatred to the underground metal music scene, the government took an
action in 2001 to band black metal music. The Northern state of Kedah has been
labelled as a centre of black metal and a number of people were detained. Their
urine were tested and they were questioned regarding their faith (Hoffstaedter, 2009). Under the
shadow of the black metal issues, local Malaysian bands such as Silent Death,
Sil Khannaz and Braindead were developed and tremendously accepted by the
Malaysian metal followers. The momentum of the scene keep gaining support from
the local underground music lover such as Napalm Death, an international metal
band that performed in Malaysia in 2001 (Ferrarese, 2015).
towards globalization, people of Malaysia may seem to be very sensitive in
issues pertaining religious and culture. The acceptance of the underground
metal scene must be looked upon different angles of thinking as the Eastern
metal scene has its own forte and approach. In other countries, metal scene
situation is usually understood. The Western culture also provides space to the
metal bands in expressing their frustration through music. Metal music also can
be translated into a reflection of societal changes brought by globalization (Timbang & Ibrahim, 2017). The year 2020
is around the corner and sceptical view of underground metal scene in Malaysia
should be changed as we are moving towards a developed nation and the new world
M. (2015). Eastern desekratorz and nuclear metal lust:1 Performing ‘authentic’
black metal in Malaysian Borneo. Metal Music Studies, 1(2),
Hoffstaedter, G. (2009). Contested spaces:
Globalization, the arts and the state in Malaysia. Ethnicities, 9(4),
Liew, K. K., & Fu, K. (2006). Conjuring the
tropical spectres: Heavy metal, cultural politics in Singapore and Malaysia. Inter-Asia
Cultural Studies, 7(1), 99–112. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649370500463182
Timbang, A., & Ibrahim, Z. (2017). Malay
Metalheads: Situating Metal Music Culture in Brunei. Situations, 10,
The animation industry in
Malaysia is still at an infant stage compared to the bigger countries such as the
United States and Japan, which is the biggest in the production of animation with
famous animation studios such as Pixar, Walt Disney, Dreamworks and Toei
Animation. Philip (2019) stated that it is common knowledge that Los Angeles,
Tokyo and Paris are among the top established animation hubs. As reported in “Global
Animation, VFX & Games Industry: Strategies, Trends & Opportunities”
(2019) the total value of global animation industry was US$ 259
billion in 2018 and is projected to reach US$ 270 billion by
The history of
Malaysian animation industry goes back to 1978 when the first animation in Malaysia, a short film, Hikayat Sang Kancil was produced in by the
National Film Department of Malaysia (FNM) and this short animation film
successfully being screened in 1983. The film was accepted very well among the Malaysian audiences and this
situation led to the appearances of more animated short films such as Sang Kancil & Monyet, Sang Kancil &
Buaya, Arnab yang Sombong, Gagak yang Bijak and Singa yang Haloba according to Juhan & Ismail (2016).
The Malaysian government
strives for the use of digital technology in the industrial sector in 1980 and
this resulted in the producing of the first animated TV series, Usop Sontorian
and in 1998, the first animated film, Silat Lagenda. Following the success,
another animation series, Keluang Man started being aired on the television in
1998. Governmental push for the use of digital technology has resulted in the
appearance of 31 animated TV series, and 3 animated feature films in Malaysia (Juhan
& Ismail, 2016).
sector in Malaysia starts to enlarge and portray substantial growth during the
ruling of the fourth Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, Suriawati (2012) stated that, due to his
excellent premiership caused the Malaysian government to urge for digital
technology to be utilized to a maximum level in order to encourage the
development of local contents to overcome the invasion of foreign animation
that contain of elements which are not suitable for Malaysian cultural
lifestyle (Hassan, 2009; Azahar & Russlan,
2010; Kamarudin & Sajilan, 2013).
Due to the emergence of 3D
animation, in 2007, a new TV series, ‘Upin & Ipin’ produced by Le’s
Copaques Production emerge in the animation scene in Malaysia. The series
obtain a lot of popularity within the Malaysian community. The success of this
TV series led to the first 3D animated film by Les Copaque Production in 2009, ‘Upin & Ipin, Geng: Penggembaraan
Bermula’. Finas (2011) reported that this film became the most successful
Malaysian animated film at that time with box-office returns of RM6.2 million.
success of Upin & Ipin, in 2011, another 3D animated series was aired on
local TV Station. Boboiboy by Animonsta Production was aired in March 2011. The
first film, ‘Boboiboy: The Movie’ was released in March 2016, and it continues
on with another series, ‘BoboiBoy Galaxy’ started from November 2016 to July
2018. Only after one season of the new series, another film that is the second
film, BoboiBoy Movie 2 was released simultaneously in 4 countries, including
Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, and Singapore on 8 August 2019. The Vietnamese dub
version of the film was released in Vietnam on 30 August 2019. BoboiBoy Movie 2
is currently the highest-grossing animated film in Malaysia that has ever been
recorded with box-office return of RM29.60
million (US$7.3 million).
to Malaysia Digital Economy Corporation (MDEC), the Malaysian animation
industry was worth RM 567.85 million (US$ 187.7 million). There are now over 100
homegrown studios that have produced more than 20 original IPs and seen their
work rate to 120+ countries, with an export value of RM132 million (over $32.2
million). With these statistics, it can be proven that the animation industry
in Malaysia is developing and has started to penetrate the global market and
compete with international animation.
Aiza, M. Z. (2019). Championing
Malaysia’s Digital Economy: A Case Study. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysia Digital
Economy Corporation (MDEC).
Digital Vector. (2019). Global
Animation, VFX & Games Industry: Strategies, Trends & Opportunities.
Animation, VFX & Games Market Research.
FINAS. (2019). Collection and
Admission for All Local and Foreign Films in Cinema: 2012 – 2018.
Retrieved from National Film Development Corporation Malaysia FINAS :
Juhan, M. S., & Ismail, N. (2016).
Character Design towards Narrative Believability of Boboiboy in the Malaysian
Animated Feature Film Boboiboy: The Movie. Academic Research and Solutions.
Kamarudin, H. S., & Sajilan, S.
(2013). Critical success factors of technopreneurship in the creative
industries: A study of animation ventures. Review of Integrative Business
and Economics Research, 2(1), 1.
Les’ Copaque. (2019). Malaysia:
Animating an International Brand. Retrieved from ASEAN Intellectual
Malay Mail. (2019, August 13). MalayMail.
Retrieved from MalayMail:
MarketsandMarkets. (2011, November). Global
Animation & Gaming Market by Application, Geopgraphy, Market Trends and
Forecast (2011-2016). Retrieved from Markets and Markets:
Nukman, R. (2019, November 21). Strategis
in Producing BoboiBoy Galaxy the Movie 2. (R. Saiful, Interviewer)
Philip, M. (2019, March 17). Why
Malaysia is the Asian Animation Market to Watch. Retrieved from Toon Boom
Bring Stories to Life:
The term body shaming or also known as an appearance-related shame is coined quite recently and it is becoming the talk of the town as the social media is uprising. For as long as you have a body, the person is bound to be subjected to body shaming (‘This is…’, December 15,2018).). Body shaming refers to an action or practice of commenting, judging, criticizing, humiliating or teasing others for their physical appearance, especially their weight (National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders, n.d) This occurs when the person did not appear to fit the societal standards of beauty as there is a specific ‘perfect’ figure that the person need to attain to be deemed acceptable in a society (‘This is…’, December 15,2018).
The idea of this ‘perfect’ body is so messed up because you
could still be punished with harsh words if you are too skinny or too plump for
the standard. And what’s worse, not only the body dimensions were scrutinized,
it also can go to the length where people can be humiliated for their facial
features, skin colour, hairstyles, height as well as the way someone is
dressing up (Carpino, 2017). Thus, this has reflected in the way they are being
treated in their everyday life including less job opportunities, less payment
and others (Burnett, 2016). Therefore, it is crystal clear that body shaming is
a form of bullying which may lower down the esteem of the victims.
Due to the fact that the media has heavily portrayed certain
beauty standards to the audience, it does make sense that that is the criteria
they need to achieve to be socially accepted (Jarret, 2019). Human brains are
uniquely functioned, they are wired to like familiarities. Hence, with the
constant exposure of body ideals, it has molded the way people think and
whatever they captured in the media is what they believed in (Jarrett, 2019). Thus,
the acceptance of beauty standards. Consequently, this has made those without
the standard, especially the overweight ones to become a subject of jokes in
did people know that the constant negative comments thrown to the victims has
beaten them up emotionally and physically. There is evidence from the National
Health and Morbidity Survey 2015 (Ministry of Health, 2019) that illustrated
one out of two Malaysian is obese which brings Malaysia to one of the
healthiest nation in Asia. Not only that, two thirds of adults in England were
classified overweight in 2017. Meanwhile, according to the National Center for
Health Statistics in United States, 70% of the adults is considered obese
(‘Does fat…’, September 17,2019).
Although the statistics look very worrying, that does not give the tickets to
others to simply body shame those with overweight body with such nasty words.
people think that body shaming someone is a way of motivating the victims to
shed some fats off their body (‘Does fat…’, September
Interestingly, proof revealed that body shaming and weight discrimination made
things worse and it will only lead to self-destructive behaviour (Sullivan,
2019). He added, the victims might feel ashamed of themselves and lead them to
depression, anxiety and eating disorders. In addition, one of the body shaming
victims said in an article (‘Does fat…’, September
that the downgrading criticisms only made her eat more as that the only thing
that makes her feel better. It seems like body shaming someone only create more
are many instances whereby people condemning others due to their physical
appearances. For instance, Zaihani Zain, a well-known Malaysian fashion critic
once body shamed someone for making her feeling uncomfortable during a catwalk
shows she attended (Petter, 2018). She mentioned in her statement on Twitter
that whoever weighing more than 60kg should not attend any fashion show event
as their thighs are spilling over and disturbed the comfort of people sitting
next to them. However, she received a huge backlash from Malaysian as well as
other fashion critics for her insensitive comments.
body shaming is a crime? According to Ministry of Health Malaysia, body shaming
is an act of bullying whereby it may marks a negative effect towards the
victims such as emotional stress, loss of self-confidence, loss of appetite,
depression and worse, may lead to suicidal thoughts (Yeap, 2019). Malaysia has
finally stepped up their game to increase mental health awareness through criminalizing
the offenders with fines up to RM50, 000 or imprisonment up to a year under
section 233 (1) (b) Communication and Multimedia Act 1998. Therefore, with this
initiative by the authorities, hope that people will be more sensitive to their
words and mental health issues can be curbed.
In conclusion, know that people come in different shapes and sizes. Everyone is uniquely beautiful in their own way regardless their appearance. Be wise in choosing your words as it has the biggest power to influence others. Rather than using it to degrading others, people should turn it over with positive and uplifting criticisms. Hence, people will be happier and healthier.
There has been a declining
viewership of western films in recent years as majority of American film
fanatics and international viewers have turned to alternative entertainment
programmes that are not from Hollywood (Fu, 2013).
The rise of the Asian film industry, such as K-drama or Hallyu, has driven Western
viewers to move away from Hollywood films. Film genres have remained stagnant
(Neale, 2005). But Hollywood today is reinstating its dominance in the world by
trying to promote a genre that highlights the Western lifestyle and maybe
slowly injecting its social living standards in non-Western countries. This is
shown on both traditional and new streaming platforms, such as television or at
the cinema, as well as Netflix, Hulu etc.
What is political correctness? Roberts (1997) described it as language, policies or measures that are intended to avoid offense or disadvantage to members of particular groups in society. The term refers to avoiding language or behaviour that can be seen as excluding, marginalising, or insulting groups of people considered disadvantaged or discriminated against, especially groups defined by sex or race. In public discourse and the media, it is generally used as a pejorative, implying that these policies are excessive or unwarranted. In laymen’s term, it is an act deemed by liberals in America as a righteous virtue in upholding the minority race and sexual preference (Spencer, 1994).
understand the current political correctness of today, one must look back at
the origin of the movement. The term was first coined in the late 19th and 20th
century under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin in Soviet Russia. Its function
was to implement a condition of a socially contrast way of thought in the
nation in the form of being socially and theoretically correct to give little
room to any opposition opinion with the rulers. The indoctrination is heavily
injected into factors that weigh heavily in a society, such as culture, social
norms and race.
By late 1980s, most Western
media and reporters criticised the term as a “usage that was deemed by the left
to place censorship in the language being used in the news”. They argue its
existence and usage is to “protect” ethnic minority culture and sexual
preference. This has led to the
undermining of its credibility and reliability as it intends to appease the
left wing of politics in the US and European countries. Certain phrases or
words are deemed “racist” or “intolerant” to minorities and the lesbian, gay, bisexual,
transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) group (Raehn, 1997).
Hollywood is the latest to
adopt the virtues of political correctness to appeal to the younger liberal
masses. By the end of the millennium, Hollywood and entertainment industries in
America face rigid competition from other entertainment businesses in producing
music or films that cater to a wider audience outside America. Unlike the 1970s
and1980s when Hollywood thrived globally, the viewers today are tuning less to Western
production and are giving their support to local industries. Given also the
fact that quarter of the US population is ethnically non-European ancestry,
this demographic has demanded more representation of their own kind to be
portrayed in TV shows and films.
As the US tries to uphold its
“righteous” values and force them other nations, this too has been considered
as another factor why the US entertainment industry is losing its fans. Viewers outside the US cannot
comply to or accept the virtues displayed by Hollywood. Recent Hollywood films
even displayed distorted historical facts. In late 2018, English director Christopher
Nolan released his historical World War II film Dunkirk. The film was about the Britain army stranded at the shores
of Dunkirk in France. They were trying to flee to England from the German army.
Keep in mind this is a World War II film based on a true story.
The distorted historical figures in the movie were the Britain army being
portrayed. A few of the army men were actors of the African-American
race. However, during the war, the Britain army did not consist of non-European
ethnic fighting at the front line in Europe. This bad portrayal falsified
history and gave a false view of the event to generations who watch the movie.
Another form of political correctness
culture in the media is the diversity image Hollywood is trying to uphold in
presenting a more diverse cast in today’s shows, compared with 20 years ago
when most of the cast were Caucasian actors and actresses. The diversity that
is being shown in TV shows and films from Hollywood often
depicts an interracial cast instead of a cast that is fully non-whites or
blacks. It is apparent that diversity reflected in Hollywood today only
highlights multiracial cast when the make-up of the world population consists
of different races with its own unique cultures, traditions, ways of living and
But what has taken Hollywood
by storm is a movement that is tied closely to politics in the US. The recent
Oscars was one of the platforms used for such a political movement. One of the
prominent women figures, Oprah Winfrey, used her airtime to preach women empowerment
to the masses as opposed to receiving the award. What’s intriguing in this
isn’t just how politics suddenly and explosively intersected with an
awards-season release, it’s how the studio failed to punch back. Universal
execs could have argued that the film is a celebration of an American hero; they
could even offer to screen the movie at the White House. They did neither,
partly because filmmakers refused to compromise their principles, and partly
because they knew that placating conservatives would backfire at the Oscars.
What is obvious from the observation
of political correctness is that Hollywood has a lot to study on the matter
before adopting it senselessly onto its production and causing an uproar among
the majority of audiences that can’t relate to the virtues of political
correctness. Also, the adaptation should be freed of any political agenda to
gain favours in the political American spectrum.
FAIRCLOUGH, N. (2003). `Political Correctness’: the Politics of Culture
Japan as one of the country in the world who had
enormous producing of anime and game characters. The market for its anime and
games had been tremendous accepted and flourished around the globe. Furthermore,
Japan as the core country existed with the advancement of technology and development
(Adhikary, 2015). Hence, it could penetrate and
influence other country in the perspective of cultural diplomacy. Cultural diplomacy is a part of public
diplomacy. Diplomacy itself is an effort to gain the national interest in
international society and to have foreign relations (Kim, 2017).
Diplomacy is an effort to struggle its
national interest through cultural dimension, such as education, science,
sport, art, and other (Warsito & Kartikasari, 2007).
In this paper context, Doraemon one of the examples from many types of Japanese anime that
have a popularity and famous worldwide. Doraemon
is a Japanese anime series written and illustrated by Fujiko F. Fujio. In early
publication, the series only in printing method and appeared for the first time
in 1969 in Children’s Monthly Magazine in Japan. Before the series was took
part in television series, the English translation came out for comic version.
Animated series in television was debuted on 1973 by Nippon Television (Miho, 2014).
anime as a part of Japanese Public Diplomacy? According to (Snow, 2009)
, the countries now impress others with their soft power potential. These
include of science, art, culture, sport, education and other things. If we look
from the Doraemon anime series, every
angle of Japanese culture been portrayed from its family relationship,
varieties of food, school environment and positives side of Japan. This image
portrayed as a representative image of Japan to the international world (Adhikary,
In one study conducted by (Kartikasari, 2018) stated that Doraemon as an anime ambassador through the International Anime
Award in 2008. It was recognized by the Japanese Foreign Minister on that time
because of the big influence of Doraemon.
This recommendation and decision made by the Committee of Pop-Culture Experts
and the Japanese Cartoon Association with the collaboration with Ministry of
Foreign Affairs of Japan (MOFA) and Ministry of Culture of Japan (Kartikasari, 2018).
The appointment of Doraemon as the anime ambassador, the Japanese government hope that the world community can know the positive side of Japan through the Japanese anime. In addition, it could promote and introduce Japan to the world since it one of successful example of creative global industry. The government of Japan also hope that the presence of Doraemon raises the attractiveness of foreign society towards Japanese culture, tradition, music and technology. All this then formed a fans community that also spread in Asia and America (Kartikasari, 2018).
According to (Nye, 2005),
in order to co-opt other groups and parties, the element of attraction is
essential. Soft power is the ability to attract, and attraction often leads to
acquiescence. Based on this statement, we could see how other foreign countries
accepting the Japanese sources like anime, fashion, work culture and food in
the local values. In Malaysia, the vision of Look East Policy has been chanted
long time ago by Dato’ Seri Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, Malaysia Prime Minister. This
to imitate how successful Japanese work ethics could be implement and practice
in Malaysia (MOFA, 2002).
series also we look how the father’s role in the family as a leader or someone
that hardworking and dedicated to his work. This has been portrayed how the
cartoon wearing the office suit and sometimes coming back home in late time
because of office’s work. Japan uses its anime as their public diplomacy
actually because in this modern era, people tend to see the global condition by
using simple way and also communication by using modern ways as media device (Mori, 2018).
Media is the place for getting the information or
issues and also media can be used or giving the responds towards issues and
information. It fits with the public diplomacy theory which is said by the U.S
Department of State, Dictionary of International Relations Terms 1987 (PublicDiplomacy.org, 2016), Public diplomacy
refers to government-sponsored programs intended to inform or influence public
opinion in other countries. Its chief instruments are publications, motion
pictures, cultural exchanges, radio and television.
Even the series mostly translated into the respective
language in specific country, but the environment and message from the
animation could be understood and digested. This effectiveness can be seen from
the number of foreign students studying Japanese language for example. According
to (Mori, 2018)
when the anime features particular places as locations. The locations not only
get to the viewers’ heart, but also motivate their behavior to visit there.
Hence, develop P2P (People to People) diplomacy through international exchange
between foreigners and local people. P2P diplomacy involves all the ways in
which governments and private individuals, organizations and groups influence
foreign policy directly and indirectly (Mori,
To improve Japanese figures abroad, MOFA (Ministry of
Foreign Affairs of Japan) took the policy by organizing several programs to
attract people in other countries. The purpose of these programs actually to
enhance the image, enhance mutual trust and respect for the Japanese government
and its society. MOFA and Japan Foundation as the actor of public diplomacy to executes
programs and strengthening their objectives in enhancing to promote of learning
Japanese and culture (MOFA, 2018).
series started it franchise on 2005. At this time the agreement between TV
Asahi Corporation and The Walt Disney Company arranged for the series get aired
in Disney XD television channel in the United States. The popularity of Doraemon not just appear in television
series, but also video games, musical, merchandise and film. From Japan’s view,
the acceptance of their product in foreign country not only give a positive
image, but from franchising of Doraemon
character will boost their economy, particularly in merchandise and copyright (Miho, 2014).
With the large of Japanese anime fans outside from
Japan, certain program arranged in local area to attract and showing a positive
image of Japanese culture (Kartikasari, 2018). In Malaysia, the Japanese anime fans
such as Doraemon, Sailormoon or One Piece could participate and show their interest by
participating in the event like Japan Expo, Comic Fiesta and World Cosplay
Summit (Paidi, M. Akhir, & Ping, 2014).
These platforms provide a connection and interaction
among the fans and indirectly will spread the positive image and views about
Japan. The programs usually supported by the Japanese organizations by giving a
grant. In Malaysia, the cultural grant aid provided by the Japan government from
1975 to 2016 approximately JPY 1,561.5 Million (MOFA, 2018). Japan Foundation as
one of the organization that provide full support as it function in bridging
between local people and Japan government. Moreover, its existence located in
every country in the world.
In conclusion, the Japanese anime series will give a
significant view in the cultural diplomacy. Even if watching the anime could
not bring the audiences directly to the Japan’s policies, but in certain level,
the message of positive image successfully deliverable. The formation of
Japanese identities in every part of the world proved that, without a military
weapon also could influence others to accept the characteristic based on the
attraction that have in the cultural values.
Adhikary, R. S. (2015). Impact of
Japanese Cartoons on Primary School Going Children: With Special Reference to
Doraemon. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 20(6),
W. (2018). The Role of Anime and Manga in Indonesia-Japan Cultural Diplomacy.
University of Tsukuba, 41-47.
(2017, August 2). Bridging the Theoretical Gap Between Public Diplomacy and
Cultural Diplomacy. The Korean Journal of International Studies, 15(2),
Miho, T. (2014). Educational and Technological Perspectives
in Doraemon – Hope and Dreams in Doraemon’s Gadgets. International Journal
of Humanities and Social Sciences, 8(11), 3723-3728.
(2002). Ministry of Foreign Affairs Japan. Retrieved from Look East
Policy – The Challenges for Japan in Globalized World:
(2018, July 25). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Retrieved from
(2018). How Does Anime Realize Public Diplomacy?: The Potential and Future
Prospects of Anime Pilgrimage. International Journal of Kitakyushu City
(2005). Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. New York :
M. Akhir, M., & Ping, L. P. (2014, 8 5). Reviewing the Concept of
Subculture: Japanese Cosplay in Malaysia. 163-181.
(2016). PublicDiplomacy.org. Retrieved from PDAA – An Association of
Public Diplomacy Professionals: https://pdaa.publicdiplomacy.org/?page_id=6
(2009). Rethinking Public Diplomacy. New York: Routledge.
T., & Kartikasari, W. (2007). Diplomasi Kebudayaan: Konsep dan
Relevansi Bagi Negara Berkembang. Yogyakarta, Indonesia : Ombak .
Nowadays, within the modern world, it can be seen that the culture of Disney has spread all over the world, aided by its popularity. But the questions that raises to our mind is what are the main cause of it? It is greatly well-known that Disney is one of the most powerful organization that owns around billions of the amount of media assets. As stated by Wantasen (n.d.), the term of “Disneyization” usually will be defined based on the bad way and it also indicates the homogenization of the emotional labour, consumption and merchandising. According to Bryman, (n.d.), there are four dimensions of cultural imperialism of Disney, which are theming, emotional labour, dedifferentiation of consumption and also merchandising.
Firstly, theming of the theme park. As nowadays, most of the leisure activities have becoming standardized and also homogenized, therefore due to the fact that it is well-known theme park, it could be the product, together with the shifting of the society’s needs. Nevertheless, they have come up with the visualized cartoon in forms of physically exist in order to attract more visitors. It can be said that one of the reason of the development of this industry is due to the high demand among society to stay away from stressful daily environment (Bryman, n.d.).
Meanwhile, as stated by Bryman (n.d.), the term dedifferentiation of consumption defines that “the general trend, in which the forms of consumption associated with different institutional spheres becomes interlocked with each other and increasingly difficult to distinguish”. In other words, the main attraction is not totally focused only on the industry of theme park, but also restaurants, accommodations, shops and so on. The combination of those services may be defined as the “consumption of hybrid” that represents the merging of various kinds of the consumption. Plus, the main key objective for the organization is to attract more on the spending among visitors, therefore they can produce more profit. The higher the needs being fulfilled, the longer period of time that people will prefer to stay. Same goes to their spending. As for example, those visitor, their main idea is just to go to the theme park, however, they will still need to spend more on the food, souvenir and others as well. This is the same thing as you dropped into the airport as it can also become your shopping spots. So, your main point here is to take flight, but still you want to spend on the other things as well like foods for example.
Besides that, the other elements is the merchandising that also represents the franchising. As stated by Bryman (n.d.), merchandising acts as the part of the promotion of the products in the form of or holding the images and also logos of copyright, which involves those products that are made under the license. It can also mentioned that it’s one of the main reason that Disney becomes the leading and also very popular organization throughout the whole globe. Besides that, they have a lot of different kind of products for their merchandise which was sold at all of their outlet. Therefore, the key contributor of their profit comes from the sales of their merchandise like books, hats, mug and so on. As stated by Bryman (n.d.), rather than the general type of business solely, the sales of merchandising surely will encourage towards better profit.
The fourth element that was proposed by Bryman (n.d.), was the emotional labor, in which he explains that the employees are given no choice but to behave within the behavior that has been set by them. As for example, portraying the good and joyful behavior as the employee of the theme park whenever they are communicating with the visitors of the theme park. Those employees need to comply with the specific behavior that has been set by them, in terms of the helpfulness, friendliness and cleanliness. However, this kind of behavior in working was finally turn into the stereotype of contemporary culture. This is to convey the idea that the theme park employees also feeling happy as well, therefore it produces the loyalty among the visitor based on the medium of conversation among them.
As for conclusion, through the advancement of technology, it can be said that there’s no longer barrier to spread the culture all over the globe, that people can reach the information at any of their convenient time. The influence of this culture can be seen through the domination of Disney culture towards the world. Within Malaysia, it can be seen through the transformation by Malaysian make-up artist, Saraswati, through her Instagram account, Queenofluna into few characters of Disney princess (Malaymail, 2016). This was somehow shown that we actually being affected by the diffusion of culture. This is a very rigid examples of how Disney culture is being integrated into our own culture. In which, people adapted and also accepted the culture and at the same time this shows how powerful the Disney’s hegemonic across the globe nowadays. The society however, could be either negatively or positively affected by the culture of Disney. As for positive, it could be we get to learn new culture and negative effect is our own culture might lose its own original identity as mixed up with the other culture.
Bryman, A. (n.d.). The Disneyization of Society. Sociology Review, Vol 47, 125-26, 29-30.
Advances in technology have given the
youth more ways in access an increasing amount of information. Local and
international news can be read in the newspaper, listened to on radio, watched
on television and found on smartphones or online. For those with access to
these options, a wealth of information and entertainment is always readily
available. In areas where access to technology is expensive, radio continues to
play an important role in information sharing.
Radio broadcasts can provide information
and entertainment broadcasted 24 hours a day to provide the most recent updates
about news or something entertainment related to listeners. Essentially, radio
is virtually everywhere at any time of the day. It is very handy, easily
accessible, cheap and it is a perfect portable information that is accessible
at home, in the office or in the car.
However, there are loads of grumble
regarding radio station in Malaysia such as “why radio stations keep playing
the same song over and over again?”, “why does most radio stations have a
morning show?”, “why radio stations need a feedback from caller about the
topic?” (Khasim, 2019). Those questions
have answered by one of the former radio announcer named Nadia Nazir at her
Radio stations in Malaysia have pattern
program which means radio station contain morning show, afternoon show, evening
show and night show. This program is using music with a wide audience appeal
and with an emphasis on the presentation of the announcers (Francois, Douglas , & Guillaume , 2009). Besides that, Astro
radio introduced format radio into stations. The idea of having format radio is
to cater the age of groups. Mature content and 90’s music with entertaining
announcers, listeners would tune to Sinar and Mix. On the other hand, radio
station such as Era, Hitz and FlyFM are suitable for younger generation.
Since people are enjoying with
familiarity, this is the reason why radio format was introduced. It is easier
for radio listeners to choose as all radio stations fall under different
categories. All radio stations have
their own ways of targeting to private niche populations with niche content. Radio
format refers to the overall content of a radio station and therefore it will
prevent confused or mixed with programming. For instance, while a radio which
plays fresh popular music for teens another which on air more news and talk
content. The format gives an identity to the radio station and it is use as a
marketing tool for the radio company through its audience and advertising
However, people may see complain on social
media about the high repetition of songs, announcers keep on talking for
minutes and they stated tuning to other radio. The truth is, every radio
station has their own formula and already have their own target audience.
Whenever you feel uncomfortable, do not like the music, do not like the
repetition, that means you are tuning to wrong radio. The slogan “customer is
always right” can apply to the radio as well because listener is king to your
own ear. Whichever your choice is, you may tune to other radio station to suit
your feeling. Radio stations do not just put anything on air because they feel
like it. They do it because people want it.
The repetition of songs may give you feel
bored, then again, this group of people are niche. The format of radio stations
has large listenership as the formula works. In Malaysia, there were radio
stations that play indie songs or random songs nevertheless, those radio
stations did not last very long. It shows that some people may like indie and
random genre, but the mass do not enjoy it. Malaysia is a small country as well
as the entertainment industry itself, having 100000 listeners on radio will not
bring in the advertisers which is the main way radio generates revenue.
Moreover, the most complain radio stations
get from social media user is about announcers’ ramble to talk for two to three
minutes. According to (Setiowati, 2018), the announcers play an important role
as to reached wide listeners and to ensure content of the program present fresh
ideas and not predictable. In fact, the announcers able in creating a
consistent style which means they regulates the tone of the program by his/her
individual approach to the listener.
Radio is a medium to reaching the public
and it is immediate reaction. It is the modern equivalent to the village
story-teller. Through words, sounds and human voice, radio talks to the
listeners directly. Although it sounds like easy to reach the audience, need to
have skills and strategies to make sure listeners not tuning to other station.
One of the ways practiced by the radio stations to give freshness and newness
to listeners and keep them tuned into their stations by hiring famous
celebrities to handle the program. For example, Era.je hiring Johan, Sinar
radio hiring Jep Sepahtu, Hot FM hiring Shuib Sepahtu and all of them are
famous comedian in Malaysia. The question here, whether radio stations use
celebrities for morning shows to ensure listeners become loyal to the radio
From the research held by (Setiowati, 2018), it is proved that
the use of famous celebrities as radio announcer able to reach listeners. The
celebrities have their own fans and followers thus, the listeners tune to the
radio station is because of they want to listen and support their favourite
celebrity. Other than that, radio listening habits of most people are when they
leave or return to work or other activities. They used to listen to the radio
in the car as of traffic density that makes them need more time in vehicle. Morning
drive or morning show usually provide some chats and jokes to cheer up their
listeners that is still sleepy while they have to go to their schools,
campuses, or works. Theoretically, whether a station using celebrities to host
the morning show, they must plan a consistent content of the program. A
consistency in programming will form a positioning about the station in the
minds of listeners.
M., Douglas , E., & Guillaume , D. (2009). Streerable Playlist Generation
By Learning Song Similarity From Radio Station Playlist. 10th
International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference.
R. (2019, March). Radio Market Structure and Music Diversity. (N. A. Effendi,
E. (2018). The Pattern Program of The Morning Radio Sequence: Study of Four
Major Stations in Jakarta. KnE Social Sciences.
Let’s just say if you are an avid concert-goer like me, you will understand why KL Live is chosen as one of the preferred location for any musical events. It is a very well-known event space located at the heart of Jalan Sultan Ismail, which will surprise you with the ultimate live music experience you will need to encounter at least once in a lifetime.
Estalished in 2010, the concert hall have held over 63 concert events featuring local and famous, international acts such as Marshmello, Simple Plan, Sum 41, Zedd, Dua Lipa, and the recent uprising American singer that makes highschool kids be feeling proud of their young, dumb and broke self, Khalid.
KL Live is Kuala Lumpur’s fastest growing entertainment venue located at the heart of the city. With the standing capacity of 2500 pax, it is a multipurpose entertainment duplex event hall, with two fully licensed bars, KL Live is known to have hosted some of the most explosive live concerts, DJ parties, dance competitions and corporate events.
KL Live is located on the 1st floor of Life Centre at No. 20 Jalan Sultan Ismail, 50250 Kuala Lumpur. Through its conveniences, the event space is also easily accessed by car and taxi. If you are commuting using the public transport, the closest stop would be the Raja Chulan Station. It is around 5-minute walk from the preferred station and it is also on walking distance from both KLCC and Pavilion.
If you decide to attend any events at the venue, there are certain guidelines that need to be followed. Upon the entrance, there will be security body and bag checks. In order to enter the venue, it is advisable to only bring your wallet and your phone to the venue because there is a restriction towards drinking bottles, medications, packed cigarettes, anything flammable, foods as well as beverages. Extra points if you are ready to display your Identification Card (IC) in order to get the line going smooth and moving before gates starts to open for the show to happen. P.S, during event days, basement parkings are at RM25 per entry, however, there are other alternatives to park your vehicles nearby the venue.
And here I attach videos taken from attending concerts at KL Live. Enjoy!