Written by Nur Maizatul Akhma Binti Ab Latif


The word gout comes from the Latin, gutta, which means droplets. According to ancient beliefs, this disease is caused by wounds that ‘drop’ into the joint, thus inflicting pain. This disease is suspected to occur due to the presence of toxins which attack the joints. While gout does not happen overnight, it does form slowly, drop by drop.

In medical terms, gout can be interpreted as a disease where excessive accumulation of uric acid is present in the body, either due to increased production, decreased disposal, or of purine rich foods. Gout is characterized by recurrent attacks of acute arthritis, sometimes accompanied by the formation of large sodium urate crystals called tophus, chronic joint deformity and injury to the kidneys.

Anatomy of Goat / Gout

The matrix consists of two types of macromolecules, namely proteoglycans and collagen.

  1. Proteoglycans include 10% dry weight prone to joints and contain 70-80% water. This causes the patient to be resistant to pressure and feel elastic joints.
  2. Collagen includes 50% dry weight prone to joints and is highly resistant to traction. The more the tip, the more the joints become thicker. This thickness of the joints make collagen resistant to tugs.

Meanwhile, gout disease can be classified into two, namely primary and secondary.

  1. Primary goat / gout is caused by genetic and environmental factors, though 99% of the cause can be unknown (idiopathic). However, a combination of genetic and hormonal factors is suspected to be the cause of disruption to metabolism. As a result, the production of uric acid also increases. Primary gout can also be a result of reduced expenditure of uric acid from the body.
  2. Secondary goat usually arises because of complications with other diseases (hypertension and artherosclerosis). The cause is partly due to increased production of uric acid, affected by high nutrient intake, such as eating foods with high purine levels. Purine is one of the basic organic compounds that is made up from nucleic acids, and is part amino acid, the protein-forming agent.

Symptoms and signs of gout / goat disease can be seen as follows:

  1. Hyperuricemia
  2. Arthritis gout / Gout acute, explosive, severe pain, swelling, red, palpable heat in the joints, and will be felt in the waking hours in the morning.
  3. Formation of typical uric crystals in the joint fluid
  4. There is tofi upon chemical examination
  5. There has been more than one acute attack.
  6. The presence of attacks in one joint, especially the joints of the big toe,

Criteria of gout disease can be distinguished in three forms, namely:

  1. Increased serum uric acid levels;
  2. Use of various drugs; and
  3. Is ascertained by two methods, namely finding the crystals in the synovial fluid and finding the fusion of the veins in the sediment trophy

If infected with this disease, then one should be treated as follows:

  1. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  2. If the disease is about 1-2 joints, a solution of corticosteroid crystals can be injected directly into the joint.
  3. Pain relief medication is added to control pain, and
  4. Drugs such as probenesid or sulfinspirazon function to reduce uric acid levels in the blood.

Though gout disease can be unsuspecting, prevention is better than cure. In addition to setting a strict diet for ourselves, we can reduce the possibility of being affected by gout disease by practising the following:

  1. Drink plenty of water
  2. Avoid alcoholic beverages
  3. Reduce foods that are rich in protein, and
  4. If you are overweight, immediately reduce your weight to a balanced range according to your Body Mass Index (BMI)

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